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循环报道

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循环报道两种基本形式示意图,其中虛线指最终审阅者无法看到的来源获取过程。在两种情况下,第一手来源(上方)会以两个独立来源的形式呈现给最终审阅者(下方)。

循环报道,又称虚假确认,是来源批判的情况之一,指一条消息以貌似出自多个独立来源的形式出现,实际上仅出自单一来源[1][2]。部分情况中,该问题由其他媒體搜集信息時過於草率而引起。然而在其他情形下,这个情况可能是由原创者故意捏造多個相似內容的來源,目的是增强人民对其信息的信任[3]

循环报道问题会在不同领域出现,包括情报搜集英语intelligence assessment新闻和学术研究。尤其在军事情报方面,由于原始来源传递错误信息的可能性非常高,加上报告链条更容易被遮盖,该问题受到特别关注。2002年尼日尔铀伪造品事件英语Niger uranium forgeries是情报部门循环报道的经典实例[4]

维基百科的例子[编辑]

维基百科与媒体进行循环报道的图解

维基百科偶尔会被批为循环报道的来源[5][6]。因此,维基百科建议研究人员和记者警惕或尽量避免使用维基百科作为直接来源,而把焦点放在一篇條目中有参考资料而且经验证的內容[7]。在下列实例中,由于循环报道,不实信息在维基百科和新闻来源中传播。兰德尔·门罗在他的讽刺漫画《Xkcd》中将这一现象称为“引文生成反應”(Citogenesis[8]

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Sterzer, Marcus; McDuff, Patrick; Flasz, Jacek. Note to File—The Challenge of Centralized Control Faced by the Intelligence Function in Afghanistan (PDF). Canadian Army Journal. Summer 2008, 11.2. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2012-03-05). 
  2. ^ Rozen, Laura. The Cocktail Napkin Plan for Regime Change in Iran. Mother Jones. 2008-06-07 [2019-06-26]. (原始内容存档于2020-11-09). 
  3. ^ Hurley, Micheal T.; Smith, Kenton V. Chapter 8: The Aviv Report. I Solemnly Swear: Conmen, Dea, the Media and Pan Am 103. New York: iUniverse. : 129 [2019-06-26]. ISBN 0-595-29947-4. Circular reporting occurs when what is reported is fed back to the originator in revised fashion which makes it difficult to objectively view the end product until you can trace back the sources to determine where the original information actually came from. Pan Am would eventually try to play that game by trying to introduce into court news reports that they themselves had a hand in producing. 
  4. ^ Drogin, Bob; Hamburger, Tom. Niger Uranium Rumors Wouldn't Die. Los Angeles Times. 2006-02-17 [2019-06-26]. (原始内容存档于2017-10-12). This became a classic case of circular reporting," said a U.S. intelligence official who spoke on condition of anonymity because he is not authorized to talk to reporters. "It seemed like we were hearing it from lots of places. People didn't realize it was the same bad information coming in different doors. This is an interesting example of circular reporting. 
  5. ^ Timmer, John. Wikipedia hoax points to limits of journalists’ research. Ars Technica. 2009-05-08 [2019-06-26]. (原始内容存档于2012-04-14). 
  6. ^ Harrison, Stephen. The Internet’s Dizzying Citogenesis Problem. Slate英语Slate (magazine). 2019-03-07 [2019-07-03]. (原始内容存档于2021-01-07). 
  7. ^ Wikipedia:引用維基百科
  8. ^ Munroe, Randall (w, p, i). "Citogenesis" xkcd (978) (2011-11-16) (页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  9. ^ Hardwick, Viv. Mears sets his sights on UK. The Northern Echo. 2014-09-09 [2019-06-26]. (原始内容存档于2014-09-29). He once hitchhiked around the Pacific Rim countries 
  10. ^ Wie ich Freiherr von Guttenberg zu Wilhelm machte. Bildblog. 2009-02-10 [2019-06-26]. (原始内容存档于2019-04-05) (德语). 
  11. ^ kdawson. False Fact On Wikipedia Proves Itself. Slashdot. 2009-02-11 [2019-06-26]. (原始内容存档于2020-01-23). 
  12. ^ Wikipedia Article creates Circular references. Tech Debug. 2009-04-19 [2019-06-26]. (原始内容存档于2019-04-05). 
  13. ^ Brown, Jonathan. From wallabies to chipmunks, the exotic creatures thriving in the UK. The Independent. 2010-06-21. (原始内容存档于2014-05-21). Coati (also known as the Brazilian aardvark): found in Cumbria 
  14. ^ Ingham, John. Exotic animals could wipe out native wildlife. Daily Express. 2010-06-21 [2019-07-05]. (原始内容存档于2020-07-28). There are also about 10 Brazilian aardvark in Cumbria 
  15. ^ Scorpions, wallabies and aadvarks 'invading Britain'. Metro. 2010-06-21 [2019-07-05]. (原始内容存档于2010-06-25). There are thought to be ten coatis, a kind of Brazilian aardvark, in Cumbria 
  16. ^ Leach, Ben. Scorpions, Brazilian aardvarks and wallabies all found living wild in UK, study finds. The Daily Telegraph. 2010-06-21 [2019-07-05]. (原始内容存档于2010-06-25). 
  17. ^ Randall, Eric. How a Raccoon Became an Aardvark. The New Yorker. 2014-05-19 [2019-06-26]. (原始内容存档于2014-05-23). 
  18. ^ Safier, Neil. Beyond Brazilian Nature: The Editorial Itineraries of Marcgraf and Piso’s Historia Naturalis Brasiliae. Groesen, Michiel van (编). The Legacy of Dutch Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2014: 179. ISBN 978-1-107-06117-0. In the case of the Coati, for instance, also known as the Brazilian aardvark, Buffon explained that “Marcgrave, and practically all of the Naturalists after him, said that the aardvark had six toes in its hind feet: M. Brisson is the only one who has not copied this error of Marcgrave.” 

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