种族归纳

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

种族归纳(英语:racial profiling),又译为种族貌相[1]种族脸谱化種族貌相判定,指执法机关在判断某一类特定的犯罪或违法行为的犯罪嫌疑人身份将种族或族群特征列入考虑范围,进而可能导致在破案过程中更多地怀疑某一族群的作案嫌疑。[2][3]

20世纪末期,此种做法由于执法机关可能滥用职权而在美国引发了公众的争议。也有民权活动家提议反对警察在破案时进行种族归纳。[4][5]

也有意见认为,在确定犯罪嫌疑人身份时使用包括种族在内的多种考虑因素,在西方国家的司法界得到广泛的支持。警察根据任何特征归纳确定犯罪嫌疑人身份是经过实践检验的常用手法,有意识地将种族因素排除在外是没有逻辑的。

参考链接[编辑]

  1. ^ 用種族貌相判定法阻止恐怖攻擊?無效!
  2. ^ Profiling. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. 
  3. ^ Warren, Patricia Y.; Farrell, Amy. The Environmental Context of Racial Profiling. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2009, 623: 52–63. JSTOR 40375886. 
  4. ^ The Persistence Of Racial And Ethnic Profiling In The United States. American Civil Liberties Union. [2017-03-05] (英语). 
  5. ^ "Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, and Human Rights in the United States". U.S. Domestic Human Rights Program. Amnesty International USA Publications. September 2004, New York.

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Jack Glaser. 2014. Suspect Race: Causes and Consequences of Racial Profiling (Oxford University Press)
  • Jeff Shantz. 2010. Racial Profiling and Borders: International, Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Lake Mary: Vandeplas).
  • Ronald Weitzer and Steven Tuch. 2006. Race and Policing in America: Conflict and Reform (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Ryberg, Jesper. Racial Profiling And Criminal Justice. Journal of Ethics. 2011, 15 (1/2): 79–88. doi:10.1007/s10892-010-9098-3. 
  • Ruiz, James; Julseth, Jason W.; Winters, Kathleen H. Profiling, Cajun Style: The FBI Investigation?.. International Journal of Police Science & Management. 2010, 12 (3): 401–425. doi:10.1350/ijps.2010.12.3.173. 
  • Baker, Al. "Judge Declines to Dismiss Case Alleging Racial Profiling by City Police in Street Stops." The New York Times. Nytimes.com, 31 August 2011. Web. 26 April 2012
  • Jeff Shantz. 2010. Racial Profiling and Borders: International, Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Lake Mary: Vandeplas).

相关条目[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]