種族歸納

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種族歸納(英語:racial profiling),又譯為種族貌相[1]種族臉譜化種族貌相判定,指執法機關在判斷某一類特定的犯罪或違法行為的犯罪嫌疑人身份將種族或族群特徵列入考慮範圍,進而可能導致在破案過程中更多地懷疑某一族群的作案嫌疑。[2][3]

20世紀末期,此種做法由於執法機關可能濫用職權而在美國引發了公眾的爭議。也有民權活動家提議反對警察在破案時進行種族歸納。[4][5]

也有意見認為,在確定犯罪嫌疑人身份時使用包括種族在內的多種考慮因素,在西方國家的司法界得到廣泛的支持。警察根據任何特徵歸納確定犯罪嫌疑人身份是經過實踐檢驗的常用手法,有意識地將種族因素排除在外是沒有邏輯的。

美國以外,以色列因爲與巴勒斯坦領土糾紛而遭受頻繁的恐怖襲擊是一個活用種族歸納執法的國家,其中以色列最大的民用本-古里安國際機場就因爲利用種族歸納法來辨別訪客的潛在威脅而獲一些媒體評為全球保安最佳的國際機場之一。[6]

參考連結[編輯]

  1. ^ 用種族貌相判定法阻止恐怖攻擊?無效!
  2. ^ Profiling. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition. 
  3. ^ Warren, Patricia Y.; Farrell, Amy. The Environmental Context of Racial Profiling. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2009, 623: 52–63. JSTOR 40375886. 
  4. ^ The Persistence Of Racial And Ethnic Profiling In The United States. American Civil Liberties Union. [2017-03-05] (英語). 
  5. ^ "Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, and Human Rights in the United States". U.S. Domestic Human Rights Program. Amnesty International USA Publications. September 2004, New York.
  6. ^ Boston Globe What Israeli security could teach us 頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館, August 23, 2006

參考文獻[編輯]

  • Jack Glaser. 2014. Suspect Race: Causes and Consequences of Racial Profiling (Oxford University Press)
  • Jeff Shantz. 2010. Racial Profiling and Borders: International, Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Lake Mary: Vandeplas).
  • Ronald Weitzer and Steven Tuch. 2006. Race and Policing in America: Conflict and Reform (New York: Cambridge University Press).
  • Ryberg, Jesper. Racial Profiling And Criminal Justice. Journal of Ethics. 2011, 15 (1/2): 79–88. doi:10.1007/s10892-010-9098-3. 
  • Ruiz, James; Julseth, Jason W.; Winters, Kathleen H. Profiling, Cajun Style: The FBI Investigation?.. International Journal of Police Science & Management. 2010, 12 (3): 401–425. doi:10.1350/ijps.2010.12.3.173. 
  • Baker, Al. "Judge Declines to Dismiss Case Alleging Racial Profiling by City Police in Street Stops." The New York Times. Nytimes.com, 31 August 2011. Web. 26 April 2012
  • Jeff Shantz. 2010. Racial Profiling and Borders: International, Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Lake Mary: Vandeplas).

相關條目[編輯]

外部連結[編輯]