硨磲

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硨磲亞科
Tridacninae
化石時期: 始新世–現在
大硨磲
大硨磲
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
綱: 雙殼綱 Bivalvia
目: 簾蛤目 Veneroida
科: 鳥蛤科 Cardiidae
亞科: 硨磲亞科 Tridacninae
Lamarck, 1819

見內文

砗磲亚科(學名:Tridacninae)是軟體動物門雙殼綱之下的一個巨型的海洋動物物種分類。本分類元過往曾經屬於真瓣鳃目(Eulamelliranciiia),是硨磲總科之下唯一的一個科,現時被下降成為簾蛤目[1][2]鳥蛤科中的一亞科[3]

本科物種绝大部分种类是大型贝类,生活在印度洋温暖水域的珊瑚礁中,许多种类和甲藻类共生。


[show all] Direct child taxa (8) [show all] [sort alpha..] Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorHippopus Lamarck, 1799 Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridacna Bruguière, 1797

Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorDinodacna Iredale, 1937 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridacna Bruguière, 1797 Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorPersikima Iredale, 1937 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridacna Bruguière, 1797 Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorSepidacna Iredale, 1937 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridacna Bruguière, 1797 Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridachnes Röding, 1798 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridacna Bruguière, 1797 Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridacne Link, 1807 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridacna Bruguière, 1797 Genus Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorVulgodacna Iredale, 1937 accepted as Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorTridacna Bruguière, 1797 Environment marine LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:382150 Taxonomic Edit history Date action by 2009-02-01 15:00:03Z created ter Poorten, Jan Johan 2010-03-24 10:05:37Z changed Tran, Bastien 2011-03-07 20:34:22Z changed Bouchet, Philippe

Description[编辑]

This family contains the largest living bivalve species, including Tridacna gigas, the giant clam. They have heavy shells, fluted with 4–6 folds. The mantle is usually brightly coloured. They inhabit coral reefs in warm seas in the Indo-Pacific region. Most of these clams live in symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae).

特征[编辑]

  • 贝壳大而厚重,略呈三角形,长可达1米;
  • 壳面有高垄,垄上有重叠的鳞片,一般有4-6个褶皱;壳顶弯曲,锯齿状壳缘;
  • 壳外面通常白色或浅黄色,内面白色;外套膜缘呈黄、绿、青、紫等鲜艳的色彩,极美丽。

砗磲是稀有的有机宝石、白皙如玉,亦是佛教圣物。砗磲是海洋贝壳中最大者,直径可达1.8m。

砗磲一名始于汉代,因外壳表面有一道道呈放射状之沟槽,其状如古代车辙,故称车渠。后人因其坚硬如石,在车渠旁加石字。

砗磲、珍珠、珊瑚、琥珀在西方被誉为四大有机宝石,在中国佛教与金、银、琉璃、玛瑙、珍珠、琥珀被尊为七宝之一[4][5]

分類[编辑]

儘管本分類已被降格多年,不少文獻仍然紀錄本分類為「硨磲科」[6],但系統分類分析把本分類歸納為鳥蛤科之下的一個亞科[7][8]。本亞科只有兩個屬,而近期的基因證據表明這兩個屬是單系群的Template:Ink-en[9]。以下為這兩個屬及其下的物種:

養殖[编辑]

菲律賓及一些其他地方,本科的一些較小型的物種會有養殖場繁殖,再售與海洋水族館

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ WoRMS. Veneroida Gray, 1854. World Register of Marine Species. 
  2. ^ Poorten, J.J. ter. Outline of a systematic index - Recent Cardiidae (Lamarck, 1809). VISAYA.net. (Updated 2009 for WoRMS). 2005 (英语). 
  3. ^ WoRMS. Veneroida Gray, 1854. World Register of Marine Species. 
  4. ^ 參閱妙法蓮華經授記品
  5. ^ 妙法蓮華經授記品淺釋
  6. ^ WoRMS. Tridacnidae Lamarck, 1819. World Register of Marine Species. [2017-01-26]. 
  7. ^ Schneider, J. Phylogeny of cardiid bivalves (cockles and giant clams): revision of the Cardiinae and the importance of fossils in explaining disjunct biogeographical distributions. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 2002, 136: 321–369. 
  8. ^ Keys, J.L.; Helay, J.M. Relevance of Sperm Ultrastructure to the Classification of Giant Clams (Mollusca, Cardioidea, Cardiidae, Tridacninae). (编) Harper et al. The Evolutionary Biology of the Bivalvia, Geological Society Special Publication No 177, 2000). 
  9. ^ Schneider, J. A.; O´Foighil, D. Phylogeny of Giant Clams (Cardiidae: Tridacninae) Based on Partial Mitochondrial 16S rDNA Gene Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 1999-10, 13 (1): 59–66. 

外部連結[编辑]