神龍翼龍科

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神龍翼龍科
化石時期: 白堊紀晚期,108–66 Ma 可能还有更早的记录
风神翼龍的想像圖
风神翼龍的想像圖
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 脊索動物門 Chordata
綱: 蜥形綱 Sauropsida
目: 翼龍目 Pterosauria
亞目: 翼手龍亞目 Pterodactyloidea
(未分级) 新神龙翼龙类 Neoazhdarchia
科: 神龍翼龍科 Azhdarchidae
Nessov,1984
模式種
长矛颈神龙翼龙 Azhdarcho lancicollis
Nesov,1984

详见内文

異名
  • 泰坦翼龙科 Titanopterygiidae
    Padian,1984(复名)

神龍翼龍科(Azhdarchidae)是翼龍目神龍翼龍超科的一科,主要生存於晚白堊紀。近年在白堊紀早期(約1億4000萬年前的貝里亞階)地層,發現一個翼龍類的脊椎骨,可能屬於神龍翼龍科[1]

神龍翼龍科包括已知某些最大的翼龍類,例如風神翼龍。Nessov在1984年建立神龍翼龍亞科(Azhdarchinae),屬於無齒翼龍科,當時包含了神龍翼龍風神翼龍、以及Titanopteryx(目前為阿氏翼龍)。

體徵[编辑]

以四肢在地面移動的神龍翼龍科

神龍翼龍科的主要特徵為非常修長的頸部與後肢。長頸部由延長的頸椎所構成,這些頸椎的橫剖面為圓形。已發現的神龍翼龍科化石,大部分來自牠們的獨特頸部骨頭;只有少數物種曾發現狀況良好的身體骨骼,例如:風神翼龍、浙江翼龍、與相近的古神翼龍科。神龍翼龍科的其他特徵還有相當大型的頭部、類似長矛的頜部。神龍翼龍科動物曾被認為生活方式類似現代剪嘴鷗[2][3];但最近有些研究人員對此論點產生質疑,認為神龍翼龍科缺乏剪嘴鷗的演化特徵,生活方式類似陸生的鸛鳥[4][5][6][7]

系统发生学[编辑]

神龙翼龙科由于长形无齿的喙,而被归类为无齿翼龙属的近亲。其他人则主张神龙翼龙科更接近于有齿的梳颌翼龙科。目前广泛认同神龙翼龙科接近于妖精翼龙属古神翼龙属

分类[编辑]

以下分类是根据David Unwin在2006年的研究,除非另有说明。[8]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Dyke, G., Benton, M., Posmosanu, E. and Naish, D. (2010). "Early Cretaceous (Berriasian) birds and pterosaurs from the Cornet bauxite mine, Romania." Palaeontology, published online before print 15 September 2010. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2010.00997.x
  2. ^ Nesov, L. A. Upper Cretaceous pterosaurs and birds from Central Asia.. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. 1984, 1984 (1): 47–57. 
  3. ^ Kellner, A. W. A.; Langston, W. Cranial remains of Quetzalcoatlus (Pterosauria, Azhdarchidae) from Late Cretaceous sediments of Big Bend National Park, Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1996, 16 (2): 222–231. doi:10.1080/02724634.1996.10011310. 
  4. ^ Chatterjee, S.; Templin, R. J. Posture, locomotion, and paleoecology of pterosaurs. Geological Society of America Special Publication. 2004, 376: 1–64. 
  5. ^ Ősi, A.; Weishampel, D.B.; Jianu, C.M. First evidence of azhdarchid pterosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Hungary. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 2005, 50 (4): 777–787. 
  6. ^ Humphries, S.; Bonser, R.H.C.; Witton, M.P.; Martill, D.M. Did pterosaurs feed by skimming? Physical modelling and anatomical evaluation of an unusual feeding method (PDF). PLoS Biology. 2007, 5 (8): e204. 
  7. ^ http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0002271
  8. ^ Unwin, David M. The Pterosaurs: From Deep Time. New York: Pi Press. 2006: 273. ISBN 0-13-146308-X. 
  9. ^ Ibrahim, N.; Unwin, D.M.; Martill, D.M.; Baidder, L.; Zouhri, S. Farke, Andrew Allen, 编. A New Pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco. PLoS ONE. 2010, 5 (5): e10875. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010875. PMC 2877115. PMID 20520782. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Averianov, A.O. (2010). "The osteology of Azhdarcho lancicollis Nessov, 1984 (Pterosauria, Azhdarchidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan." Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 314(3): 246-317.
  11. ^ Vremir, M. T. S.; Kellner, A. W. A.; Naish, D.; Dyke, G. J. Viriot, Laurent, 编. A New Azhdarchid Pterosaur from the Late Cretaceous of the Transylvanian Basin, Romania: Implications for Azhdarchid Diversity and Distribution. PLoS ONE. 2013, 8: e54268. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054268. 
  12. ^ Averianov, A.O.; Arkhangelsky, M.S.; Pervushov, E.M. A New Late Cretaceous Azhdarchid (Pterosauria, Azhdarchidae) from the Volga Region. Paleontological Journal. 2008, 42 (6): 634–642. doi:10.1134/S0031030108060099. 
  • Astibia, H.; Buffetaut, E.; Buscalioni, A.D.; Cappetta, H.; Corrall, C.; Estes, R.; Garcia-Garmilla, F.; -1#Loeuff, Mazin; Jaeger, J.J.; 等. The fossil vertebrates from Lafio (Basque Country, Spain); new evidence on the composition and affinities of the Late Cretaceous continental fauna of Europe. Terra Nova. 1991, 2: 460–466. 
  • Bennett, S. C. Pterosaur flight: the role of actinofibrils in wing function. Historical Biology. 2000, 14 (4): 255–284. doi:10.1080/10292380009380572. 
  • (俄文)Nesov, L.A. Flying reptiles of the Jurassic and Cretaceous of the USSR and the significance of their remains for the reconstruction of palaeogeographic conditions. Bulletin of Leningrad University, Series 7, Geology and Geography. 1990, 4 (28): 3–10 (Russian).  *(俄文)Nesov, L.A. Giant flying reptiles of the family Azhdarchidae: 11. Environment, sedirnentological conditions and preservation of remains. Bulletin of Leningrad Universitv Series 7, Geology and Geography. 1991, 3 (21): 16–24 (Russian).