鋼圈胸罩

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一种半罩杯钢圈胸罩

钢圈胸罩英语:Underwire bra),是一种在面料内安放半圆剛性薄片的胸罩。薄片材质可能是金属、塑料或是树脂,缝在每个罩杯面料的内部,由胸罩中央延展至佩戴者的腋下,有助于乳房的支撑、提升、分离和塑形。许多胸罩都有钢圈设计,包括非罩杯胸罩英语shelf bras半罩杯胸罩英语demi bras哺乳胸罩及背心,裙子和泳衣等内置胸罩的衣服。

钢圈胸罩的概念可追溯至1893年一项乳房固定設備的專利,該專利是在乳房下方增加一個平板以增加穩定性。现代钢圈胸罩出現在1930年代,於1950年代開始广泛普及。2005年時钢圈胸罩是市场增长最快的胸罩。没有钢圈的胸罩称为软罩杯胸罩

穿著鋼圈胸罩的女性有時會有乳腺痛乳腺炎英语Mastitis或是过敏等病症,而在機場或是監獄接受安全檢查時,偶爾会因胸罩中鋼圈觸動金屬探測器而需額外的檢查。有出現過胸罩中的钢圈影響射擊女性胸部的子彈或其他武器路徑的案例[1][2]

历史[编辑]

玛丽·图斯的“乳房支撑器”

钢圈胸罩的原型可追溯至1893年,纽约人玛丽·图斯克发明的“乳房支撑器”获得专利。乳房支撑器被形容为紧身胸衣的修改版,与如今的聚拢文胸支撑乳房的设计十分相像。其由金属、纸板及其他刚性材料制成,其形状与乳房下的躯干极为吻合。在它上面覆盖着丝绸、帆布和其他布料,延展了平台,使每个乳房形成一个口袋。平台弯曲围绕着躯干,止于腋窝处,维持在适当位置,并在背部调正为贴合紧密的X形交错肩带,用钩眼固定[3][4]

直到1930年代,钢圈胸罩才在美国设计出并被投入生产。海伦·庞斯在1931年获得一项胸罩专利,她发明的“开放式钢圈”,平贴于胸前,环绕在两个乳房的底部和两侧[5]。1934年,出现用于罩杯间的U形片,旨在保持乳房的分离[6]。1938年,宝莲·鲍里斯获颁名为“乳房支撑器”的专利,其使用钢圈部件将乳房完全包围[7]。1940年,沃尔特·埃米特·威廉姆斯的蜘蛛网式钢圈获得专利,该专利以环绕并覆盖每个乳房提供支撑[8]。尽管钢圈胸罩的发展始于1930年代[9],但直到1950年代二战结束后国内金属供应放开,才得以普及[10][11]

1940年代,霍华德·休斯为强调有份参演电影《不法之徒英语The Outlaw珍·罗素的胸部,设计了一款聚拢型钢圈胸罩。照罗素所说,戴那个“荒谬”的玩意很是痛苦,有时在拍电影时她会把胸罩换成自己的。该胸罩目前藏于好莱坞博物馆[11]

伴随着钢圈胸罩在1950年代的广泛使用,钢圈已被纳入许多胸罩的设计中,许多衣服也内置钢圈胸罩。1990年,诺玛卡·迈利将钢圈文胸纳入到连体和分体泳衣(比基尼)中[12]。斯科特·卢克丽霞发明的集成文胸的背心,于1989年获颁专利[13]

陈列于零售店中的钢圈胸罩

2000年,钢圈胸罩占据英国胸罩市场60%的份额[14],2005年增至70%[15]。2001年,500万件胸罩在美国卖出,其中约70%(350万件)为钢圈胸罩[3][16]。截至2005年,钢圈胸罩是胸罩市场领域中增长速度最快的产品[17]

钢圈构造[编辑]

S&S Industries发明的胸罩钢圈

钢圈胸罩设有一个半月形的“钢圈”,嵌入环绕在每个罩杯底部和侧面的通道中,其头部靠近胸罩的前部和中心,尾部则靠近袖孔。钢圈大多由金属制成,小部分为塑料。由于没有金属钢圈同样的支撑性能和刚性,塑料钢圈的市场份额非常小[16]。金属钢圈是一条薄薄的金属条,两端有尼龙涂层[18],其成分有[19]和镍钛形状记忆合金[20][21]。根据为维多利亚的秘密Bail英语Bali (lingerie)Playtex英语PlaytexVF Corporation英语VF CorporationWarnaco集團英语Warnaco Group等品牌,提供钢圈的纽约制造商S&S Industries的数据[16],70%穿胸罩的女性,选择金属钢圈胸罩[22]

当钢圈穿破胸罩面料,可能给穿戴者会造成巨大的不适。已故名厨、电视名人兼商人克拉丽莎·迪克森·莱特,只在特殊场合穿胸罩。在50岁生日派对上跳舞时,她突然觉得“胸口出奇的痛苦”。起先她以为自己心脏病发作,“疼痛越来越剧烈,打了个踉跄,才发现我的钢圈胸罩破了。”[23]

由于钢圈可以撕开布料,大多数妇女在清洗胸罩时,会选择手洗,即便是机洗也要调到“缓和干洗”模式。一种名为胸罩清洗袋的拉链网眼袋,可以在机洗胸罩时,防止钢圈从胸罩中脱落[24]

2002年,S&S Industries获得了钢圈设计专利,该设计在钢圈的一端或两端加装弹簧塑料垫,弹簧有助于防止钢圈外露。2008年,威尔士的斯科特·代顿发明了“胸罩天使”,一个简单的装置,用以修复钢圈弹出通道的胸罩。其上面的塑料盖要装配到钢圈的尾部,然后将其插入胸罩,并将倒钩放在适当的位置[25][26]

健康问题[编辑]

钢圈外露的胸罩

钢圈对乳房进行摩擦、挤捏时,会引起皮肤红肿和乳腺痛[27],若穿戴钢圈从面料中突出的破胸罩,会将皮肤划伤甚至切开[28]。少数女性的皮肤对和其他金属有过敏反应,她们穿着钢圈外露的胸罩可能会引发接触性皮炎[29][30]。有些针灸师反对依赖钢圈胸罩,当金属线穿过人体的经络时,会阻碍气和能量的流动[31]

哺乳期的影响[编辑]

钢圈胸罩和其他紧缩性衣服一样,可能会导致哺乳期妇女输乳管堵塞[32][33]。怀孕期间乳房大小的波动亦是另一个问题,钢圈文胸是刚性的,不能很好地适应乳房大小的改变,导致胸罩不合身而不能正确地支撑乳房[34]乳房切除术后数天,由于乳房还很脆弱,不宜使用胸罩[35][36]

除颤器使用[编辑]

穿着金属胸罩的病人,在使用自动体外心脏去颤器时可能会引起灼伤,因此在使用前应把胸罩摘除[37]。在2007年的电视节目《流言终结者》中,有一期节目,测试佩戴钢圈文胸的患者,在使用除颤器时被灼伤的可能性。他们得出不太可能的结论,除非金属钢圈暴露,与除颤器的贴片非常接近也可能产生[38][39]

热带疾病[编辑]

一份医疗报告证明,在热带地区穿着钢圈文胸,尤其是在东非,可能会让乳房由嗜人瘤蝇蛆英语Cordylobia anthropophaga出现蝇蛆病。这种苍蝇的卵和幼虫可以寄生在衣服中,特别是文胸钢圈的周围,只能通过加热熨烫从能彻底杀死,但传统的钢圈文胸幾乎不可能藉由熨烫方式,達到可以杀死钢圈周围幼虫的温度[40]

法律问题[编辑]

美国交通运输管理局英语Transportation Security Administration(TSA)建议妇女穿无钢圈胸罩,以防被金属探测器检出[16][41]。尽管大多数女性乘客穿胸罩没有任何问题,这取决于钢圈的材料。

运输安全[编辑]

2008年8月24日,星期日,电影制片人南希·凯茨在安检时被金属探测器探测到,工作人员试图拍打她的乳房时进行检查时,遭到她的反对。她向工作人员表示:“你不能因我穿胸罩,就把我当成罪犯。”TSA主管告诉她,必须要在私人房间内接受拍身检查,否则就不允许登机。凯茨去卫生间将胸罩取下后交给主管,為了表示抗議,她以裸胸的姿态走向安检口。后来主管向她解釋,胸罩中的钢圈是导致金属探测器误报的主要原因[42][43]

2010年8月,癌症康复者、美国航空公司值班乘务员凯茜·博西,前往夏洛特道格拉斯国际机场赶乘下一班机。TSA工作人员让她通过含大量辐射全身扫描仪后,才给她放行。“安检员让我把登机牌放在背上,”她表示,“当我照做时,工作人员让我去私人检查区。”當安检员强迫她脱光衣服,展示植入假体的乳房時,她不悅地表示,安检员的搜身检查讓她“深受冒犯”,[44]。但事實上,安檢人員的行为违反了TSA的指示規定,规定中清楚寫明,安检员不能触碰或检查切掉乳房的假体[45]

2010年10月,CNN员工罗斯玛丽·菲兹帕特里克被金属探测器检测到后,接受了私人检查,期间安检员施加了侵略性的“手滑检查”。她“用手抚摸乳房周围,接着又摸了肚子、臀部和大腿内侧,还摸了最为隐私的地方。罗斯玛丽表示,她在搜身过程中哭了,“我感到很无助,这是对我的侵犯,我觉得备受侮辱。”[46]

对此,名为凯旋国际的瑞士公司,于2001年底推出一款以树脂制成的“飞行常客胸罩”。其采用的无金属扣设计,不会被金属探测器检测出[16][22][47]。这款胸罩目前未在北美上市,公司加拿大区发言人在2004年表示,尚未清楚这款胸罩是否继续生产[48]

惩教机构规定[编辑]

一些惩教机构,如圣昆丁州立监狱,让来访者要么剪开胸罩把钢圈取出,要么使用该机构为访客临时提供的无钢圈胸罩,这让不知情的访客很是尴尬和震惊[49] 。而其他机构则要求女性在洗手间内摘掉胸罩后再通过金属探测器,返回时到卫生间把胸罩拿回来[50]

2010年6月,律师布兰妮·霍斯特曼前往迈阿密联邦拘留中心会见客户,接受安检时,她的钢圈胸罩被金属探测器测出。她在洗手间将胸罩脱去后,却以不戴胸罩有违拘留中心着装规定为由,被禁止进入监狱。联邦公共律师办公室联络典狱长琳达·麦格鲁调查此事,她得知狱警曾收到一份允许穿着钢圈胸罩者进入监狱的备忘录,但霍斯特曼造访期间的值班看守对修改后的规定毫不知情。典狱长将此事归结为“失常”,保证同类事件不会再次发生[51][52]

意外事故[编辑]

有一些胸罩钢圈造成子弹或其他物体偏离,挽救佩戴者生命的个案。1996年,钢圈胸罩挽救了一位女孩的生命。据医院工作人员的介绍,这名女孩的身子被栏杆穿透,胸罩的钢圈将栏杆从心脏致命处偏离,挽救了她的性命[53]。也有一些个案中,胸罩钢圈造成子弹偏离,或致使子弹穿入心脏以外的身体部分[54]。其中一件就发生在2004年,一位贫民窟男孩向海伦·凯莉射出流弹,子弹击中了胸罩的钢圈而偏离心脏[1] 。2008年,一名抢劫受害者的胸部被刺时,攻击者的小刀恰好碰到钢圈后跑偏重要器官,从而保全了她的性命[2]

参见[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

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  36. ^ Gates, Rose A.; Regina M. Fink. 240 Oncology Nursing Secrets 请检查|url=值 (帮助). Elsevier Health Sciences. 2007. ISBN 978-0-323-04457-8. Women should avoid underwire support postoperatively and during radiation therapy, when the breast is tender and edematous. 
  37. ^ Craig, Karen. Take charge with an automated external defibrillator. Nursing. Spring 2006, 36 (Cardiac Insider): 24–26 [2009-04-30v]. 
  38. ^ Scott, Shana. Shocking Defibrillator. b5media. 2008-03-19 [2009-05-22]. the team will test whether a defibrillator can burn someone if the electricity connects with: 1. an under-wire bra 2. a nipple piercing 
  39. ^ Scott, Shana. Underwire Bra results. b5media. 2008-03-20 [2009-05-22]. 
  40. ^ Adisa CA, Mbanaso A. 'Furuncular myiasis of the breast caused by the larvae of the Tumbu fly (Cordylobia anthropophaga)'. BMC Surgery. 2004, 4: 5. PMC 394335. PMID 15113429. doi:10.1186/1471-2482-4-5. 
  41. ^ TSA Travel Assistant. Transportation Security Administration. [11 May 2011]. [失效連結]
  42. ^ Fargen, Jessica. Heavy metal: Underwire bra trips up airport cops. Boston Herald. 18 August 2008 [24 April 2009]. A California woman is crying gender discrimination after she claims she was forced to strip off her bra and walk through airport security without support after being busted when the underwires in her lingerie set off a metal detector 
  43. ^ Hendricks, Tyche. Delayed by her bra, air passenger is indignant. San Francisco Chronicle. 26 August 2008 [11 May 2011]. 
  44. ^ Molly Grantham; Brad Hyatt. After removing prosthetic breast, flight attendant says TSA goes "too far". Nov 18, 2010 [9 January 2012]. 
  45. ^ Assistive Devices and Mobility Aids. Transportation Security Administration. [9 January 2012]. [失效連結]
  46. ^ Barnett, Jim. TSA to phase in new pat-down procedures at airports nationwide. CNN. October 28, 2010 [9 January 2012]. 
  47. ^ Siskos, Catherine. Please be Seated. Kiplinger's Personal Finance (Kiplinger Washington Editors). July 2002, 50 (7): 26 [2009-04-21]. ISSN 1528-9729. 
  48. ^ Goo, Sara Kehaulani. Functional Fashion Helps Some Through Airport Checkpoints. The Washington Post. December 10, 2004 [9 January 2012]. 
  49. ^ Comfort, Megan. Doing Time Together: Love and Familyin the Shadow of the Prison Illustrated. University of Chicago Press. 2008: 54 [2009-04-21]. ISBN 0-226-11463-5. The regulation of garments during visitor processing even encompasses undergarments, and virtually every woman on her first visit is sent away to remove the wire from her underwire bra so that she can pass through the metal detector without triggering the alarm. 
  50. ^ Sullivan, Dennis; Larry Tifft. Handbook of restorative justice: a global perspective Illustrated. Routledge. 2006: 266 [2009-04-21]. ISBN 0-415-35356-4. Women with an underwire bra can trigger the metal detector, requiring them to go into the bathroom with a paper bag, remove their bra, place it in the bag, return bare breasted under often revealing blouses, suffer the stares of the correctional officers, take back the bag and redress. 
  51. ^ Florida Attorney Barred From Jail Over Bra, Then for Taking Bra Off. Fox News. 12 June 2010 [3 October 2010]. 
  52. ^ Jay Weaver. Wrong bra, no bra: Jail bars lawyer. Miami Herald. June 12, 2010 [July 14, 2010]. 
  53. ^ Bra saves girl's life. London, England: The Mirror. 1996-07-05 [2009-04-22]. A girl's underwired bra saved her life when she was impaled on railings. Caroline Baptiste, 14, slipped as she climbed the fence after being locked inside a park at Dartford, Kent. An iron spike went into her body under the left arm. Mum Patricia said yesterday: "The hospital told me the spike was probably deflected from Caroline's heart by her underwired bra." 
  54. ^ Bra Deflects Bullet, Saves Woman's Life. Geekologie. 2009-04-21 [2009-04-22]. The bullet shattered the woman's living room window but barely grazed her skin. Police said it was the underwire in her bra that deflected the bullet. 

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