岡瓦那獸目

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岡瓦那獸目
化石時期: 坎帕期-中新世, 70.6–17.5 Ma
(可能在侏羅紀出現)
Sudamerica屬物種的下頜骨
Sudamerica屬物種的下頜骨
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 脊索動物門 Chordata
亞門: 脊椎動物亞門 Vertebrata
綱: 哺乳綱 Mammalia
目: 岡瓦那獸目 Gondwanatheria

岡瓦那獸目學名:Gondwanatheria,亦可稱為岡瓦納獸目)是哺乳動物中一個已經滅絕的目,生活在上白堊世中新世(而且可能更早,如果將Allostaffia劃為該目的成員[3])的南半球,包括南極洲。該類群為人所知的僅有數顆分離的牙齒,幾片下頜骨,兩塊不完整的頭骨和一塊完整的頭骨。[4]正是因為這種零碎的知識,其分類地位不甚清晰。

分類關係[編輯]

Vintana sertichi的復原圖。除頭部外的身體部分為想像。

該類群分類關係的不明確持續了幾十年,其最開始被認為是早期的異關節總目動物,一種「無齒」的哺乳動物,接近現代的食蟻獸。隨後的多個不同研究認為它們屬於異獸亞綱,接近多瘤齒獸目,甚至可能真正屬於多瘤齒獸目,比Cimolodonta亞目更接近於Plagiaulacida亞目。[1][5][6][7]然而,一項最近的研究表明,它們與賊獸目有關,並將它們列入非哺乳動物的犬齒獸亞目[8]

岡瓦那獸目下有3個已知的科,其中Sudamericidae科由Scillato-Yané及Pascual於1984年命名,包含該類群的絕大多數部分。Ferugliotheriidae科由José Bonaparte於1986年命名, 包含Ferugliotherium一個屬,而且可能包括諸如Trapalcotherium等其他類群。Groeberiidae科最開始被認為是Paucituberculate目的有袋類,之後因該科中Groeberia屬經檢驗後被歸入岡瓦那獸目,所以整個科也被歸入岡瓦那獸目。[1]

岡瓦那獸目的進化分枝圖,根據Chimento et al. 2015。

另有化石在印度馬達加斯加南極被發現。一個可能為Ferugliotherium屬物種的化石在墨西哥馬斯垂克期地層中被發現,使得此類群的分布範圍擴展到北美洲[9]

中新世(Colhuehuapian英語Colhuehuapian期)的屬Patagonia是該類群已知年代最近的代表。[1]

生物學[編輯]

從頭部骨骼化石得知,岡瓦那獸目動物普遍具有深長而強壯有力的口鼻部,這有利於它們營專一的植食性生活。GroeberiaVintana兩個屬都具有奇特的軛骨凸緣,這與諸如地懶異關節類相似;但這兩個屬的咀嚼方式與大多數異獸亞綱動物一樣為後移式(由前向後),而這一點與幾乎所有的獸亞綱動物都不同。[10][1]大多數岡瓦那獸目動物是專一的牧食生物,它們是最早專一於食草的哺乳動物,遠早於獸亞綱動物(Groeberiidae科與Ferugliotheriidae科除外,因為它們缺乏高冠齒,其植食性可能更廣泛)。

於梅法拉諾發現的具關節的樣本,為研究者提供了有關這一類動物的非頭部骨骼的深入信息。其中奇異而獨特的特徵包括:中間外側扁平且前後彎曲的脛骨、具雙滑車的距骨、發育完全的肱骨滑車,以及異常多的軀椎。這一新類群擁有19節與肋骨相連的脊椎(胸椎)和11節不與肋骨相連的脊椎(腰椎)。除了這些衍生特徵之外,這種來自馬達加斯加的哺乳動物還擁有鑲嵌的胸帶形態:其前烏喙骨缺失,烏喙骨高度發達(形成一個擴大的過程,占關節窩的一半),間鎖骨小,而且胸鎖關節似乎可活動。A ventrally facing glenoid and the well-developed humeral trochlea suggest a relatively parasagittal posture for the forelimbs. Remarkable features of the hind limb and pelvic girdle include a large obturator foramen similar in size to that of therians, a large parafibula, and the presence of an epipubic bone.[11]

分類學[編輯]

Order †Gondwanatheria[12][13] McKenna 1971 [Gondwanatheroidea Krause & Bonaparte 1993]

  • ?†Allostaffia [14]
  • Family †Groeberiidae Patterson, 1952
    • Groeberia minoprioi Ryan Patterson, 1952
    • Groeberia pattersoni G. G. Simpson, 1970
    •  ?†Klohnia charrieri Flynn & Wyss 1999
    •  ?†Klohnia major Goin et all 2010
    •  ?†Epiklohnia verticalis Goin et all 2010
    •  ?†Praedens aberrans Goin et all 2010
  • Family †Ferugliotheriidae Bonaparte 1986
    • Ferugliotherium windhauseni Bonaparte 1986a [Vucetichia Bonaparte 1990; Vucetichia gracilis Bonaparte 1990]
    • Trapalcotherium matuastensis Rougier et al. 2008
  • Family †Sudamericidae Scillato-Yané & Pascual 1984 [Gondwanatheridae Bonaparte 1986]
    • Greniodon sylvanicum Goin et al. 2012
    • Vintana sertichi Krause et al. 2014
    • Dakshina jederi Wilson, Das Sarama & Anantharaman 2007
    • Gondwanatherium patagonicum Bonaparte 1986
    • Sudamerica ameghinoi Scillato-Yané & Pascual 1984
    • Lavanify miolaka Krause et al. 1997
    • Bharattherium bonapartei Prasad et al. 2007
    • Patagonia peregrina Pascual & Carlini 1987
    • †TNM 02067

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Nicolás R. Chimento, Federico L. Agnolin and Fernando E. Novas. The bizarre 『metatherians』 Groeberia and Patagonia, late surviving members of gondwanatherian mammals. Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 2015, 27 (5): 603–623. doi:10.1080/08912963.2014.903945. 
  2. ^ Francisco J. Goin, Marcelo F. Tejedor, Laura Chornogubsky, Guillermo M. López, Javier N. Gelfo, Mariano Bond, Michael O. Woodburne, Yamila Gurovich, Marcelo Reguero. Persistence of a Mesozoic, non-therian mammalian lineage (Gondwanatheria) in the mid-Paleogene of Patagonia. Naturwissenschaften. 2012, 99 (6): 449–463. PMID 22584426. doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0919-z. 
  3. ^ Nicholas Chimento, Frederico Agnolin, Agustin Martinelli, Mesozoic Mammals from South America: Implications for understanding early mammalian faunas from Gondwana, May 2016
  4. ^ Kraus, David W. Vintana Sertichi (Mammalia, Gondwanatheria) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. [Lincoln, NE]: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 2014: 1–2. 
  5. ^ Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B. O'Connor, Patrick M., Seiffert, Erik R., Dumont, Elizabeth R., Holloway, Waymon L., Rogers, Raymond R., Rahantarisoa, Lydia J., Kemp, Addison D., Andriamialison, Haingoson. First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism. Nature (Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited). 2014-11-05, 515: 512–517. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..512K. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 25383528. doi:10.1038/nature13922. 
  6. ^ Drake, Nadia. Fossil From Dinosaur Era Reveals Big Mammal With Super Senses. National Geographic Society. November 5, 2014 [November 5, 2014]. 
  7. ^ Wilford, John Noble. Fossil’s Unusual Size and Location Offer Clues in Evolution of Mammals. New York Times. November 5, 2014 [November 6, 2014]. 
  8. ^ Huttenlocker, Adam K.; rossnickle, David M.; Kirkland, Jam,es I.; Schultz, Julia A.; Luo, Zhe-Xi (23 May 2018). "Late-surviving stem mammal links the lowermost Cretaceous of North America and Gondwana". Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0126-y. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  9. ^ SVP 2015
  10. ^ Krause, David W.; Hoffmann, Simone; Wible, John R.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Schultz, Julia A.; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Groenke, Joseph R.; Rossie, James B. (2014-11-05). O'Connor, Patrick M., Seiffert, Erik R., Dumont, Elizabeth R., Holloway, Waymon L., Rogers, Raymond R., Rahantarisoa, Lydia J., Kemp, Addison D., Andriamialison, Haingoson. "First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism". Nature. Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. online. doi:10.1038/nature13922. ISSN 1476-4687.
  11. ^ HOFFMANN, Simone, THE FIRST POSTCRANIAL REMAINS OF A GONDWANATHERIAN MAMMAL, October 2016
  12. ^ Mikko's Phylogeny Archive [1] Haaramo, Mikko. †Gondwanatheria – gondwanatheres. 2007 [30 December 2015]. 
  13. ^ Paleofile.com (net, info) Archived copy. [2015-12-30]. (原始內容存檔於2016-01-11). . Taxonomic lists- Mammals. [30 December 2015]. 
  14. ^ Nicholas Chimento, Frederico Agnolin, Agustin Martinelli, Mesozoic Mammals from South America: Implications for understanding early mammalian faunas from Gondwana, May 2016

外部聯繫[編輯]