作通格語言

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通格語言(ergative–absolutive,或簡稱作格語言)是對及物動詞賓語不及物動詞變元(“主語”)做同樣對待、即二者之格位標記相同,并區別於這個及物動詞施事者(agent,“主語”)的語言。

作通格語言與主賓格語言[编辑]

作通格語言維持在及物動詞的賓語和不及物動詞的單一核心變元之間的句法構詞等價(比如相同的詞序語法格),而區別對待及物動詞的施事者。

這對比於主賓格語言比如英語,這里及物動詞的施事者和不及物動詞的單一變元(叫做主語)被同樣對待并保持同這個及物動詞的賓語的區別。

作通格語言之「作格陣線」A-SO
主賓格語言之「賓格陣線」AS-O

這個不同的變元通常符號化為如下:

  • O = 及物動詞的賓語(object,也符號化為P(承受者patient))
  • S = 不及物動詞的核心變元(subject,argument)
  • A = 及物動詞的施事者(agent)

在作格和賓格系統之間的聯系可以圖表表示為:

  作格–通格 主格–賓格
O
S
A

注意詞語“主語”因為典型的定義於主格-賓格語言的文法中,在提及「作格通格語言」或一般性討論「構詞句法"配列"(alignment)」的時候是不適合的。

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Anderson, Stephen. (1976). On the notion of subject in ergative languages. In C. Li. (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 1-24). New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0124473504.
  • Anderson, Stephen R. (1985). Inflectional morphology. In T. Shopen (Ed.), Language typology and syntactic description: Grammatical categories and the lexicon (Vol. 3, pp. 150-201). Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. ISBN 0521581583.
  • Comrie, Bernard. (1978). Ergativity. In W. P. Lehmann (Ed.), Syntactic typology: Studies in the phenomenology of language (pp. 329-394). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292775458.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. (1979). Ergativity. Language, 55 (1), 59-138. (Revised as Dixon 1994).
  • Dixon, R. M. W. (Ed.) (1987). Studies in ergativity. Amsterdam: North-Holland. ISBN 044470275X.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. (1994). Ergativity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521448980.
  • Foley, William; & Van Valin, Robert. (1984). Functional syntax and universal grammar. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521259568.
  • Kroeger, Paul. (1993). Phrase structure and grammatical relations in Tagalog. Stanford: CSLI. ISBN 0937073865.
  • Mallinson, Graham; & Blake, Barry J. (1981). Agent and patient marking. Language typology: Cross-linguistic studies in syntax (Chap. 2, pp. 39-120). North-Holland linguistic series. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.
  • Plank, Frans. (Ed.). (1979). Ergativity: Towards a theory of grammatical relations. London: Academic Press.
  • Schachter, Paul. (1976). The subject in Philippine languages: Actor, topic, actor-topic, or none of the above. In C. Li. (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 491-518). New York: Academic Press.
  • Schachter, Paul. (1977). Reference-related and role-related properties of subjects. In P. Cole & J. Sadock (Eds.), Syntax and semantics: Grammatical relations (Vol. 8, pp. 279-306). New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0126135088.
  • Silverstein, Michael. (1976). Hierarchy of Features and Ergativity. In R.M.W. Dixon (ed.) Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages (pp. 112-171). New Jersey: Humanities Press. ISBN 0391006940. Reprinted in Pieter Muysken and Henk van Riemsdijk (eds.), Features and Projections (pp. 163-232). Dordrecht: Foris. ISBN 9067651443.

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