标准电极电势表

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标准电极电势可以用来计算化学电池原电池电化学势电极电势

标准电极电位是以标准氢原子作为参比电极,即氢的标准电极电位值定为0,与氢标准电极比较,电位较高的为正,电位较低者为负。

本表中所给出的电极电势以以下條件測得:

单击每栏上方的符号可将数据按元素符号、反應物、產物或标准电极电势值排序。

注:(s) – 固体;(l) – 液体;(g) – 气体;(aq) – 水溶液;(Hg) – 汞齐

半反應 (V)[註 1] 來源
氧化態 還原態
& -9
Zz 9
Ba+ + e Ba(s) −4.38 [10][1][3]
Sr+ + e Sr(s) −4.10 [11][1][3]
Ca+ + e Ca(s) −3.8 [11][1][3]
Pr3+ + e Pr2+ −3.1 [11]
N2(g) + H+ + e HN3(aq) −3.09 [6]
Li+ + e Li(s) −3.0401 [5]
N2(g) + 4H2O + 2e 2NH2OH(aq) + 2OH −3.04 [6]
Cs+ + e Cs(s) −3.026 [5]
Ca(OH)2(s) + 2e Ca(s) + 2 OH −3.02 [11]
Er3+ + e Er2+ −3.0 [11]
Ba(OH)2(s) + 2e Ba(s) + 2 OH −2.99 [11]
Rb+ + e Rb(s) −2.98 [4]
K+ + e K(s) −2.931 [5]
Mg+ + e Mg(s) −2.93 [10]
Ba2+ + 2e Ba(s) −2.912 [5]
La(OH)3(s) + 3e La(s) + 3OH −2.90 [5]
Fr+ + e Fr(s) −2.9 [11]
Sr2+ + 2e Sr(s) −2.899 [5]
Sr(OH)2(s) + 2e Sr(s) + 2OH −2.88 [11]
Ca2+ + 2e Ca(s) −2.868 [5]
NH4+ + e NH4 −2.85
Eu2+ + 2e Eu(s) −2.812 [5]
Ra2+ + 2e Ra(s) −2.8 [5]
Yb2+ + 2e Yb(s) −2.76 [11][1]
Na+ + e Na(s) −2.71 [5][9]
Sm2+ + 2e Sm(s) −2.68 [11][1]
No2+ + 2e No(s) −2.50 [11]
HfO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4e Hf(s) + 4OH −2.50 [11]
Th(OH)4(s) + 4e Th(s) + 4OH −2.48 [11]
Md2+ + 2e Md(s) −2.40 [11]
La3+ + 3e La(s) −2.379 [5]
Y3+ + 3e Y(s) −2.372 [5]
Mg2+ + 2e Mg(s) −2.372 [5]
ZrO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4e Zr(s) + 4OH −2.36 [5]
Pr3+ + 3e Pr(s) −2.353 [11]
Ce3+ + 3e Ce(s) −2.336 [11]
Er3+ + 3e Er(s) −2.331 [11]
Ho3+ + 3e Ho(s) −2.33 [11]
Al(OH)4 + 3e Al(s) + 4OH −2.33
Al(OH)3(s) + 3e Al(s) + 3OH −2.31
Tb3+ + 3e Tb(s) −2.28
H2(g) + 2e 2H −2.25
Ac3+ + 3e Ac(s) −2.20
Be+ + e Be(s) −2.12 [10]
Cf2+ + 2e Cf(s) −2.12 [11]
Am3+ + 3e Am(s) −2.048 [11]
Cf3+ + 3e Cf(s) −1.94 [11]
Ca2+ + e Ca+ −1.936 [5][11]
Am2+ + 2e Am(s) −1.9 [11]
Fm3+ + 3e Fm(s) −1.89 [11]
Be2+ + 2e Be(s) −1.85
Rf4+ + 4e Rf(s) −1.67 [12]
U3+ + 3e U(s) −1.66 [7]
Al3+ + 3e Al(s) −1.66 [9]
Ti2+ + 2e Ti(s) −1.63 [9]
Bk2+ + 2e Bk(s) −1.6 [11]
ZrO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Zr(s) + 2H2O −1.553 [5]
Hf4+ + 4e Hf(s) −1.55 [11]
Zr4+ + 4e Zr(s) −1.45 [5]
Ti3+ + 3e Ti(s) −1.37 [13]
TiO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti(s) + H2O −1.31
C4+ + 4e C −1.3 [14]
Ti2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2TiO(s) + H2O −1.23
Zn(OH)42− + 2e Zn(s) + 4OH −1.199 [15]
Mn2+ + 2e Mn(s) −1.185 [15]
Fe(CN)64− + 6H+ + 2 e Fe(s) + 4HCN(aq) −1.16 [16]
V2+ + 2e V(s) −1.175 [2]
Te(s) + 2e Te2− −1.143 [2]
Nb3+ + 3e Nb(s) −1.099
Sn(s) + 4H+ + 4e SnH4(g) −1.07
In(OH)3(s) + 3e In(s) + 3OH −0.99 [11]
SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Si(s) + 2H2O −0.91
B(OH)3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e B(s) + 3H2O −0.89
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2e Fe(s) + 2OH −0.89 [16]
Fe2O3(s) + 3H2O + 2e 2Fe(OH)2(s) + 2OH −0.86 [16]
TiO2+ + 2H+ + 4e Ti(s) + H2O −0.86
2H2O + 2e H2(g) + 2OH −0.8277 [5]
Bi(s) + 3H+ + 3e BiH3 −0.8 [15]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(Hg) −0.7628 [5]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(s) −0.7618 [5]
Ta2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10e 2Ta(s) + 5H2O −0.75
Cr3+ + 3e Cr(s) −0.74
[Au(CN)2] + e Au(s) + 2CN −0.60
Ta3+ + 3e Ta(s) −0.6
PbO(s) + H2O + 2e Pb(s) + 2OH −0.58
2TiO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti2O3(s) + H2O −0.56
Ga3+ + 3e Ga(s) −0.53
U4+ + e U3+ −0.52 [7]
H3PO2(aq) + H+ + e P(白磷[17]) + 2H2O −0.508 [5]
H3PO3(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO2(aq) + H2O −0.499 [5]
H3PO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e P(红磷)[17] + 3H2O −0.454 [5]
Fe2+ + 2e Fe(s) -0.44 [9]
2CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HOOCCOOH(aq) −0.43
Cr3+ + e Cr2+ −0.42
Cd2+ + 2e Cd(s) −0.40 [9]
SeO32− + 4e + 3H2O Se + 6OH −0.37 [18]
GeO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e GeO(s) + H2O −0.37
Cu2O(s) + H2O + 2e 2Cu(s) + 2OH −0.360 [5]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(s) + SO42− −0.3588 [5]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(Hg) + SO42− −0.3505 [5]
Eu3+ + e Eu2+ −0.35 [7]
In3+ + 3e In(s) −0.34 [2]
Tl+ + e Tl(s) −0.34 [2]
NAD(P)+ + H+ + 2e NAD(P)H −0.32 [19]
B3+ + 3e B(s) −0.31
Ge(s) + 4H+ + 4e GeH4(g) −0.29
Co2+ + 2e Co(s) −0.28 [5]
H3PO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO3(aq) + H2O −0.276 [5]
V3+ + e V2+ −0.26 [9]
Ni2+ + 2e Ni(s) −0.25
As(s) + 3H+ + 3e AsH3(g) −0.23 [2]
AgI(s) + e Ag(s) + I −0.15224 [15]
MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Mo(s) + 2H2O −0.15
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4e SiH4(g) −0.14
Sn2+ + 2e Sn(s) −0.13
O2(g) + H+ + e HO2•(aq) −0.13
Pb2+ + 2e Pb(s) −0.13 [9]
WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e W(s) + 2H2O −0.12
P(红磷) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.111 [5]
CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HCOOH(aq) −0.11
Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2Se(g) −0.11
CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e CO(g) + H2O −0.11
SnO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Sn(s) + H2O −0.10
SnO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e SnO(s) + H2O −0.09
WO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6e W(s) + 3H2O −0.09 [2]
P(白磷) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.063 [5]
2D+ + 2e D2(g) −0.044
Fe3+ + 3e Fe(s) −0.04 [16]
HCOOH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HCHO(aq) + H2O −0.03
2H+ + 2e H2(g) −0.00 ≡0
AgBr(s) + e Ag(s) + Br +0.07133 [15]
S4O62− + 2e 2S2O32− +0.08
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 8e 3Fe(s) + 4H2O +0.085 [8]
N2(g) + 2H2O + 6H+ + 6e 2NH4OH(aq) +0.092
HgO(s) + H2O + 2e Hg(l) + 2OH +0.0977
Cu(NH3)42+ + e Cu(NH3)2+ + 2NH3 +0.10 [2]
Ru(NH3)63+ + e Ru(NH3)62+ +0.10 [7]
N2H4(aq) + 4H2O + 2e 2NH4+ + 4OH +0.11 [6]
H2MoO4(aq) + 6H+ + 6e Mo(s) + 4H2O +0.11
Ge4+ + 4e Ge(s) +0.12
C(s) + 4H+ + 4e CH4(g) +0.13 [2]
HCHO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH3OH(aq) +0.13
S(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2S(g) +0.14
Sn4+ + 2e Sn2+ +0.15
Cu2+ + e Cu+ +0.159 [2]
HSO4 + 3H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.16
UO22+ + e UO2+ +0.163 [7]
SO42− + 4H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.17
TiO2+ + 2H+ + e Ti3+ + H2O +0.19
Bi3+ + 2e Bi+ +0.2
SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e Sb(s) + H2O +0.20
CO2(g) + 4H+ + 4e C(s) + 2H2O +0.205
AgCl(s) + e Ag(s) + Cl +0.22233 [15]
H3AsO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e As(s) + 3H2O +0.24
GeO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ge(s) + H2O +0.26
UO2+ + 4H+ + e U4+ + 2H2O +0.273 [7]
At2 + e 2At- +0.3 [11]
Re3+ + 3e Re(s) +0.300
Bi3+ + 3e Bi(s) +0.32
VO2+ + 2H+ + e V3+ + H2O +0.34
Cu2+ + 2e Cu(s) +0.340 [2]
[Fe(CN)6]3− + e [Fe(CN)6]4− +0.36
Tc2+ + 2e Tc(s) +0.40 [11]
O2(g) + 2H2O + 4e 4OH(aq) +0.40 [9]
H2MoO4 + 6H+ + 3e Mo3+ + 2H2O +0.43
Ru2+ + 2e Ru(s) +0.455 [11]
Bi+ + e Bi(s) +0.50
CH3OH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH4(g) + H2O +0.50
SO2(aq) + 4H+ + 4e S(s) + 2H2O +0.50
Cu+ + e Cu(s) +0.520 [2]
CO(g) + 2H+ + 2e C(s) + H2O +0.52
I3 + 2e 3I +0.53 [9]
I2(s) + 2e 2I +0.54 [9]
[AuI4] + 3e Au(s) + 4I +0.56
H3AsO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3AsO3(aq) + H2O +0.56
[AuI2] + e Au(s) + 2I +0.58
MnO4 + 2H2O + 3e MnO2(s) + 4OH +0.59
Rh+ + e Rh(s) +0.600 [11]
S2O32 + 6H+ + 4e 2S(s) + 3H2O +0.60
Fc+ + e Fc(s) +0.641 [20]
+ e Ag + +0.643 [11]
H2MoO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e MoO2(s) + 2H2O +0.65
1,4-Benzochinon.svg + 2H+ + 2e Hydrochinon2.svg +0.6992 [15]
O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e H2O2(aq) +0.70
Tl3+ + 3e Tl(s) +0.72
PtCl62− + 2e PtCl42− + 2Cl +0.726 [7]
H2SeO3(aq) + 4H+ + 4e Se(s) + 3H2O +0.74
Rh3+ + 3e Rh(s) +0.758 [11]
PtCl42− + 2e Pt(s) + 4Cl +0.758 [7]
Fe3+ + e Fe2+ +0.77
Ag+ + e Ag(s) +0.7996 [5]
Hg22+ + 2e 2Hg(l) +0.80
NO3(aq) + 2H+ + e NO2(g) + H2O +0.80
FeO42− + 5H2O + 6e Fe2O3(s) + 10 OH +0.81 [16]
[AuBr4] + 3e Au(s) + 4Br +0.85
Hg2+ + 2e Hg(l) +0.85
MnO4 + H+ + e HMnO4 +0.90
2Hg2+ + 2e Hg22+ +0.91 [2]
Pd2+ + 2e Pd(s) +0.915 [7]
[AuCl4] + 3e Au(s) + 4Cl +0.93
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e Mn3+ + 2H2O +0.95
[AuBr2] + e Au(s) + 2Br +0.96
[HXeO6]3− + 2H2O + 2e + [HXeO4] + 4OH +0.99 [21]
HNO2 + H+ + e- NO(g) + H2O +0.996
H6TeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e TeO2(s) + 4H2O +1.02 [22]
Br2(l) + 2e 2Br +1.07
Br2(aq) + 2e 2Br +1.09 [9]
NO2(g) + H+ + e- HNO2 +1.093
IO3 + 5H+ + 4e HIO(aq) + 2H2O +1.13
[AuCl2] + e Au(s) + 2Cl +1.15
HSeO4 + 3H+ + 2e H2SeO3(aq) + H2O +1.15
Ir3+ + 3e Ir(s) +1.156 [11]
Ag2O(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2Ag(s) + H2O +1.17
ClO3 + 2H+ + e ClO2(g) + H2O +1.18
[HXeO6]3− + 5H2O + 8 e Xe(g) + 11OH +1.18 [21]
Pt2+ + 2e Pt(s) +1.188 [7]
ClO2(g) + H+ + e HClO2(aq) +1.19
2IO3 + 12H+ + 10e I2(s) + 6H2O +1.20
ClO4 + 2H+ + 2e ClO3 + H2O +1.20
O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e 2H2O +1.229 [9]
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Mn2+ + 2H2O +1.23
[HXeO4] + 3H2O + 6 e Xe(g) + 7OH +1.24 [21]
Tl3+ + 2e Tl+ +1.25
Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6e 2Cr3+ + 7H2O +1.33
Cl2(g) + 2e 2Cl +1.36 [9]
CoO2(s) + 4H+ + e Co3+ + 2H2O +1.42
2NH3OH+ + H+ + 2e N2H5+ + 2H2O +1.42 [6]
2HIO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e I2(s) + 2H2O +1.44
Ce4+ + e Ce3+ +1.44
BrO3 + 5H+ + 4e HBrO(aq) + 2H2O +1.45
β-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O +1.460 [2]
α-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O +1.468 [2]
2BrO3 + 12H+ + 10e Br2(l) + 6H2O +1.48
2ClO3 + 12H+ + 10e Cl2(g) + 6H2O +1.49
HO2 + H+ + e H2O2 +1.495 [11]
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O +1.51
HO2 + H+ + e H2O2(aq) +1.51
Au3+ + 3e Au(s) +1.52
NiO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Ni2+ + 2OH +1.59
2HClO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Cl2(g) + 2H2O +1.63
Ag2O3(s) + 6H+ + 4e 2Ag+ + 3H2O +1.67
HClO2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HClO(aq) + H2O +1.67
Pb4+ + 2e Pb2+ +1.69 [2]
MnO4 + 4H+ + 3e MnO2(s) + 2H2O +1.70
AgO(s) + 2H+ + e Ag+ + H2O +1.77
H2O2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e 2H2O +1.776
Co3+ + e Co2+ +1.82
Au+ + e Au(s) +1.83 [2]
BrO4 + 2H+ + 2e BrO3 + H2O +1.85
Ag2+ + e Ag+ +1.98 [2]
S2O82− + 2e 2SO42− +2.07
O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e O2(g) + H2O +2.075 [7]
HMnO4 + 3H+ + 2e MnO2(s) + 2H2O +2.09
XeO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6 e Xe(g) + 3H2O +2.12 [21]
F2O + 2H+ + 4 e 2F + H2O +2.153 [11]
H4XeO6(aq) + 8H+ + 8 e Xe(g) + 6 H2O +2.18 [21]
FeO42− + 3e + 8H+ Fe3+ + 4H2O +2.20 [23]
XeF2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Xe(g) + 2HF(aq) +2.32 [21]
H4XeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e XeO3(aq) + H2O +2.42 [21]
F2(g) + 2e 2F +2.87 [2][9]
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e 2HF(aq) +3.05 [2]
Tb4+ + e Tb3+ +3.05 [11]
  1. ^ Safari的v.4.0.3或更早版本(v4.0.5可正常工作)上单击这一列可能不会工作。在这种情况下仅仅需要刷新页面恢复原始顺序。

參見[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Milazzo, G., Caroli, S., and Sharma, V. K. (1978). Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials (Wiley, Chichester).
  2. ^ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 Bard, A. J., Parsons, R., and Jordan, J. (1985). Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions (Marcel Dekker, New York).
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Bratsch, S. G. (1989). Journal of Physical Chemistry Reference Data Vol. 18, pp. 1–21.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Vanýsek, Petr (2006). "Electrochemical Series," in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 87th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  5. ^ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 Vanýsek, Petr (2007). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 88th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. Chemistry of the Elements 2nd. Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. 1997. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  7. ^ 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R.(2001). Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons Inc).
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Marcel Pourbaix (1966). Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE International, Houston, Texas; Cebelcor, Brussels).
  9. ^ 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 Peter Atkins (1997). Physical Chemistry, 6th edition (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York).
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Ca Sr Ba一價[11]與兩價間的標準電極電勢正好有規律關係,因此可以估計近似值
  11. ^ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.20 11.21 11.22 11.23 11.24 11.25 11.26 11.27 11.28 11.29 11.30 11.31 11.32 11.33 11.34 11.35 11.36 Standard Redox Potential Table
  12. ^ Ti Zr Hf 的標準電極電勢變化較規律,因此可估計 Rf的標準電極電勢
  13. ^ Gordon Aylward & Tristan Findlay (2008). "SI Chemical Data", 6th edition (John Wiley & Sons, Australia), ISBN 9780470816387.
  14. ^ List of carbon reactivity series (PDF). web.anl.gov. [2013-06-06].  可知碳之活性,九年義務教育課本《化學》九年級第一學期,上海教育出版社,2007年8月第2版,ISBN 978-7-5320-8481-4 第109、112頁、MSDS of carbon. [2013-06-06]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-05). 根據碳的相關安全資料,可之其活性範圍,推之
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 Vanýsek, Petr (2007). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 88th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Iron | compounds information
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 由−0.454和(2×−0.499 + −0.508) ÷ 3 = −0.502推算出。
  18. ^ “Glyoxal Bisulfite”, Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 3, p.438 (1955).
  19. ^ Huang, Haiyan; Shuning Wang; Johanna Moll; Rudolf K. Thauer. Electron Bifurcation Involved in the Energy Metabolism of the Acetogenic Bacterium Moorella thermoacetica Growing on Glucose or H2 plus CO2. Journal of Bacteriology. 2012-07-15, 194 (14): 3689–3699 [2013-09-10]. ISSN 0021-9193. doi:10.1128/JB.00385-12. 
  20. ^ Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E. Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry. Chemical Reviews. 1 January 1996, 96 (2): 877–910. PMID 11848774. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. 
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Xenon | compounds information
  22. ^ Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 6th, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1999, ISBN 0-471-19957-5 
  23. ^ Redox Reactions, Western Oregon University website