标准电极电势表

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索

标准电极电势可以用来计算化学电池原电池电化学势电极电势

标准电极电位是以标准氢原子作为参比电极,即氢的标准电极电位值定为0,与氢标准电极比较,电位较高的为正,电位较低者为负。

本表中所给出的电极电势以以下條件測得:

单击每栏上方的符号可将数据按元素符号、反應物、產物或标准电极电势值排序。

注:(s) – 固体;(l) – 液体;(g) – 气体;(aq) – 水溶液;(Hg) – 汞齐

半反應 (V)[註 1] 來源
氧化態 還原態
& -9
Zz 9
Ba+ + e Ba(s) −4.38 [10][1][3]
Sr+ + e Sr(s) −4.10 [11][1][3]
Ca+ + e Ca(s) −3.8 [11][1][3]
Pr3+ + e Pr2+ −3.1 [11]
N2(g) + H+ + e HN3(aq) −3.09 [6]
Li+ + e Li(s) −3.0401 [5]
N2(g) + 4H2O + 2e 2NH2OH(aq) + 2OH −3.04 [6]
Cs+ + e Cs(s) −3.026 [5]
Ca(OH)2(s) + 2e Ca(s) + 2 OH −3.02 [11]
Er3+ + e Er2+ −3.0 [11]
Ba(OH)2(s) + 2e Ba(s) + 2 OH −2.99 [11]
Rb+ + e Rb(s) −2.98 [4]
K+ + e K(s) −2.931 [5]
Mg+ + e Mg(s) −2.93 [10]
Ba2+ + 2e Ba(s) −2.912 [5]
La(OH)3(s) + 3e La(s) + 3OH −2.90 [5]
Fr+ + e Fr(s) −2.9 [11]
Sr2+ + 2e Sr(s) −2.899 [5]
Sr(OH)2(s) + 2e Sr(s) + 2OH −2.88 [11]
Ca2+ + 2e Ca(s) −2.868 [5]
NH4+ + e NH4 −2.85
Eu2+ + 2e Eu(s) −2.812 [5]
Ra2+ + 2e Ra(s) −2.8 [5]
Yb2+ + 2e Yb(s) −2.76 [11][1]
Na+ + e Na(s) −2.71 [5][9]
Sm2+ + 2e Sm(s) −2.68 [11][1]
No2+ + 2e No(s) −2.50 [11]
HfO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4e Hf(s) + 4OH −2.50 [11]
Th(OH)4(s) + 4e Th(s) + 4OH −2.48 [11]
Md2+ + 2e Md(s) −2.40 [11]
La3+ + 3e La(s) −2.379 [5]
Y3+ + 3e Y(s) −2.372 [5]
Mg2+ + 2e Mg(s) −2.372 [5]
ZrO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4e Zr(s) + 4OH −2.36 [5]
Pr3+ + 3e Pr(s) −2.353 [11]
Ce3+ + 3e Ce(s) −2.336 [11]
Er3+ + 3e Er(s) −2.331 [11]
Ho3+ + 3e Ho(s) −2.33 [11]
Al(OH)4 + 3e Al(s) + 4OH −2.33
Al(OH)3(s) + 3e Al(s) + 3OH −2.31
Tb3+ + 3e Tb(s) −2.28
H2(g) + 2e 2H −2.25
Ac3+ + 3e Ac(s) −2.20
Be+ + e Be(s) −2.12 [10]
Cf2+ + 2e Cf(s) −2.12 [11]
Am3+ + 3e Am(s) −2.048 [11]
Cf3+ + 3e Cf(s) −1.94 [11]
Ca2+ + e Ca+ −1.936 [5][11]
Am2+ + 2e Am(s) −1.9 [11]
Fm3+ + 3e Fm(s) −1.89 [11]
Be2+ + 2e Be(s) −1.85
Rf4+ + 4e Rf(s) −1.67 [12]
U3+ + 3e U(s) −1.66 [7]
Al3+ + 3e Al(s) −1.66 [9]
Ti2+ + 2e Ti(s) −1.63 [9]
Bk2+ + 2e Bk(s) −1.6 [11]
ZrO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Zr(s) + 2H2O −1.553 [5]
Hf4+ + 4e Hf(s) −1.55 [11]
Zr4+ + 4e Zr(s) −1.45 [5]
Ti3+ + 3e Ti(s) −1.37 [13]
TiO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti(s) + H2O −1.31
C4+ + 4e C −1.3 [14]
Ti2O3(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2TiO(s) + H2O −1.23
Zn(OH)42− + 2e Zn(s) + 4OH −1.199 [15]
Mn2+ + 2e Mn(s) −1.185 [15]
Fe(CN)64− + 6H+ + 2 e Fe(s) + 4HCN(aq) −1.16 [16]
V2+ + 2e V(s) −1.175 [2]
Te(s) + 2e Te2− −1.143 [2]
Nb3+ + 3e Nb(s) −1.099
Sn(s) + 4H+ + 4e SnH4(g) −1.07
In(OH)3(s) + 3e In(s) + 3OH −0.99 [11]
SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Si(s) + 2H2O −0.91
B(OH)3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e B(s) + 3H2O −0.89
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2e Fe(s) + 2OH −0.89 [16]
Fe2O3(s) + 3H2O + 2e 2Fe(OH)2(s) + 2OH −0.86 [16]
TiO2+ + 2H+ + 4e Ti(s) + H2O −0.86
2H2O + 2e H2(g) + 2OH −0.8277 [5]
Bi(s) + 3H+ + 3e BiH3 −0.8 [15]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(Hg) −0.7628 [5]
Zn2+ + 2e Zn(s) −0.7618 [5]
Ta2O5(s) + 10H+ + 10e 2Ta(s) + 5H2O −0.75
Cr3+ + 3e Cr(s) −0.74
[Au(CN)2] + e Au(s) + 2CN −0.60
Ta3+ + 3e Ta(s) −0.6
PbO(s) + H2O + 2e Pb(s) + 2OH −0.58
2TiO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ti2O3(s) + H2O −0.56
Ga3+ + 3e Ga(s) −0.53
U4+ + e U3+ −0.52 [7]
H3PO2(aq) + H+ + e P(白磷[17]) + 2H2O −0.508 [5]
H3PO3(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO2(aq) + H2O −0.499 [5]
H3PO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e P(红磷)[17] + 3H2O −0.454 [5]
Fe2+ + 2e Fe(s) −0.44 [9]
2CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HOOCCOOH(aq) −0.43
Cr3+ + e Cr2+ −0.42
Cd2+ + 2e Cd(s) −0.40 [9]
SeO32− + 4e + 3H2O Se + 6OH −0.37 [18]
GeO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e GeO(s) + H2O −0.37
Cu2O(s) + H2O + 2e 2Cu(s) + 2OH −0.360 [5]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(s) + SO42− −0.3588 [5]
PbSO4(s) + 2e Pb(Hg) + SO42− −0.3505 [5]
Eu3+ + e Eu2+ −0.35 [7]
In3+ + 3e In(s) −0.34 [2]
Tl+ + e Tl(s) −0.34 [2]
NAD(P)+ + H+ + 2e NAD(P)H −0.32 [19]
B3+ + 3e B(s) −0.31
Ge(s) + 4H+ + 4e GeH4(g) −0.29
Co2+ + 2e Co(s) −0.28 [5]
H3PO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3PO3(aq) + H2O −0.276 [5]
V3+ + e V2+ −0.26 [9]
Ni2+ + 2e Ni(s) −0.25
As(s) + 3H+ + 3e AsH3(g) −0.23 [2]
AgI(s) + e Ag(s) + I −0.15224 [15]
MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e Mo(s) + 2H2O −0.15
Si(s) + 4H+ + 4e SiH4(g) −0.14
Sn2+ + 2e Sn(s) −0.13
O2(g) + H+ + e HO2•(aq) −0.13
Pb2+ + 2e Pb(s) −0.13 [9]
WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e W(s) + 2H2O −0.12
P(红磷) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.111 [5]
CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e HCOOH(aq) −0.11
Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2Se(g) −0.11
CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e CO(g) + H2O −0.11
SnO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Sn(s) + H2O −0.10
SnO2(s) + 2H+ + 2e SnO(s) + H2O −0.09
WO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6e W(s) + 3H2O −0.09 [2]
P(白磷) + 3H+ + 3e PH3(g) −0.063 [5]
2D+ + 2e D2(g) −0.044
Fe3+ + 3e Fe(s) −0.04 [16]
HCOOH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HCHO(aq) + H2O −0.03
2H+ + 2e H2(g) −0.00 ≡0
AgBr(s) + e Ag(s) + Br +0.07133 [15]
S4O62− + 2e 2S2O32− +0.08
Fe3O4(s) + 8H+ + 8e 3Fe(s) + 4H2O +0.085 [8]
N2(g) + 2H2O + 6H+ + 6e 2NH4OH(aq) +0.092
HgO(s) + H2O + 2e Hg(l) + 2OH +0.0977
Cu(NH3)42+ + e Cu(NH3)2+ + 2NH3 +0.10 [2]
Ru(NH3)63+ + e Ru(NH3)62+ +0.10 [7]
N2H4(aq) + 4H2O + 2e 2NH4+ + 4OH +0.11 [6]
H2MoO4(aq) + 6H+ + 6e Mo(s) + 4H2O +0.11
Ge4+ + 4e Ge(s) +0.12
C(s) + 4H+ + 4e CH4(g) +0.13 [2]
HCHO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH3OH(aq) +0.13
S(s) + 2H+ + 2e H2S(g) +0.14
Sn4+ + 2e Sn2+ +0.15
Cu2+ + e Cu+ +0.159 [2]
HSO4 + 3H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.16
UO22+ + e UO2+ +0.163 [7]
SO42− + 4H+ + 2e SO2(aq) + 2H2O +0.17
TiO2+ + 2H+ + e Ti3+ + H2O +0.19
Bi3+ + 2e Bi+ +0.2
SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e Sb(s) + H2O +0.20
CO2(g) + 4H+ + 4e C(s) + 2H2O +0.205
AgCl(s) + e Ag(s) + Cl +0.22233 [15]
H3AsO3(aq) + 3H+ + 3e As(s) + 3H2O +0.24
GeO(s) + 2H+ + 2e Ge(s) + H2O +0.26
UO2+ + 4H+ + e U4+ + 2H2O +0.273 [7]
At2 + e 2At- +0.3 [11]
Re3+ + 3e Re(s) +0.300
Bi3+ + 3e Bi(s) +0.32
VO2+ + 2H+ + e V3+ + H2O +0.34
Cu2+ + 2e Cu(s) +0.340 [2]
[Fe(CN)6]3− + e [Fe(CN)6]4− +0.36
Tc2+ + 2e Tc(s) +0.40 [11]
O2(g) + 2H2O + 4e 4OH(aq) +0.40 [9]
H2MoO4 + 6H+ + 3e Mo3+ + 2H2O +0.43
Ru2+ + 2e Ru(s) +0.455 [11]
Bi+ + e Bi(s) +0.50
CH3OH(aq) + 2H+ + 2e CH4(g) + H2O +0.50
SO2(aq) + 4H+ + 4e S(s) + 2H2O +0.50
Cu+ + e Cu(s) +0.520 [2]
CO(g) + 2H+ + 2e C(s) + H2O +0.52
I3 + 2e 3I +0.53 [9]
I2(s) + 2e 2I +0.54 [9]
[AuI4] + 3e Au(s) + 4I +0.56
H3AsO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e H3AsO3(aq) + H2O +0.56
[AuI2] + e Au(s) + 2I +0.58
MnO4 + 2H2O + 3e MnO2(s) + 4OH +0.59
Rh+ + e Rh(s) +0.600 [11]
S2O32 + 6H+ + 4e 2S(s) + 3H2O +0.60
Fc+ + e Fc(s) +0.641 [20]
+ e Ag + +0.643 [11]
H2MoO4(aq) + 2H+ + 2e MoO2(s) + 2H2O +0.65
1,4-Benzochinon.svg + 2H+ + 2e Hydrochinon2.svg +0.6992 [15]
O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e H2O2(aq) +0.70
Tl3+ + 3e Tl(s) +0.72
PtCl62− + 2e PtCl42− + 2Cl +0.726 [7]
H2SeO3(aq) + 4H+ + 4e Se(s) + 3H2O +0.74
Rh3+ + 3e Rh(s) +0.758 [11]
PtCl42− + 2e Pt(s) + 4Cl +0.758 [7]
Fe3+ + e Fe2+ +0.77
Ag+ + e Ag(s) +0.7996 [5]
Hg22+ + 2e 2Hg(l) +0.80
NO3(aq) + 2H+ + e NO2(g) + H2O +0.80
FeO42− + 5H2O + 6e Fe2O3(s) + 10 OH +0.81 [16]
[AuBr4] + 3e Au(s) + 4Br +0.85
Hg2+ + 2e Hg(l) +0.85
MnO4 + H+ + e HMnO4 +0.90
2Hg2+ + 2e Hg22+ +0.91 [2]
Pd2+ + 2e Pd(s) +0.915 [7]
[AuCl4] + 3e Au(s) + 4Cl +0.93
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e Mn3+ + 2H2O +0.95
[AuBr2] + e Au(s) + 2Br +0.96
[HXeO6]3− + 2H2O + 2e + [HXeO4] + 4OH +0.99 [21]
HNO2 + H+ + e- NO(g) + H2O +0.996
H6TeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e TeO2(s) + 4H2O +1.02 [22]
Br2(l) + 2e 2Br +1.07
Br2(aq) + 2e 2Br +1.09 [9]
NO2(g) + H+ + e- HNO2 +1.093
IO3 + 5H+ + 4e HIO(aq) + 2H2O +1.13
[AuCl2] + e Au(s) + 2Cl +1.15
HSeO4 + 3H+ + 2e H2SeO3(aq) + H2O +1.15
Ir3+ + 3e Ir(s) +1.156 [11]
Ag2O(s) + 2H+ + 2e 2Ag(s) + H2O +1.17
ClO3 + 2H+ + e ClO2(g) + H2O +1.18
[HXeO6]3− + 5H2O + 8 e Xe(g) + 11OH +1.18 [21]
Pt2+ + 2e Pt(s) +1.188 [7]
ClO2(g) + H+ + e HClO2(aq) +1.19
2IO3 + 12H+ + 10e I2(s) + 6H2O +1.20
ClO4 + 2H+ + 2e ClO3 + H2O +1.20
O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e 2H2O +1.229 [9]
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Mn2+ + 2H2O +1.23
[HXeO4] + 3H2O + 6 e Xe(g) + 7OH +1.24 [21]
Tl3+ + 2e Tl+ +1.25
Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6e 2Cr3+ + 7H2O +1.33
Cl2(g) + 2e 2Cl +1.36 [9]
CoO2(s) + 4H+ + e Co3+ + 2H2O +1.42
2NH3OH+ + H+ + 2e N2H5+ + 2H2O +1.42 [6]
2HIO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e I2(s) + 2H2O +1.44
Ce4+ + e Ce3+ +1.44
BrO3 + 5H+ + 4e HBrO(aq) + 2H2O +1.45
β-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O +1.460 [2]
α-PbO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Pb2+ + 2H2O +1.468 [2]
2BrO3 + 12H+ + 10e Br2(l) + 6H2O +1.48
2ClO3 + 12H+ + 10e Cl2(g) + 6H2O +1.49
HO2 + H+ + e H2O2 +1.495 [11]
MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 4H2O +1.51
HO2 + H+ + e H2O2(aq) +1.51
Au3+ + 3e Au(s) +1.52
NiO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e Ni2+ + 2OH +1.59
2HClO(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Cl2(g) + 2H2O +1.63
Ag2O3(s) + 6H+ + 4e 2Ag+ + 3H2O +1.67
HClO2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e HClO(aq) + H2O +1.67
Pb4+ + 2e Pb2+ +1.69 [2]
MnO4 + 4H+ + 3e MnO2(s) + 2H2O +1.70
AgO(s) + 2H+ + e Ag+ + H2O +1.77
H2O2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e 2H2O +1.776
Co3+ + e Co2+ +1.82
Au+ + e Au(s) +1.83 [2]
BrO4 + 2H+ + 2e BrO3 + H2O +1.85
Ag2+ + e Ag+ +1.98 [2]
S2O82− + 2e 2SO42− +2.07
O3(g) + 2H+ + 2e O2(g) + H2O +2.075 [7]
HMnO4 + 3H+ + 2e MnO2(s) + 2H2O +2.09
XeO3(aq) + 6H+ + 6 e Xe(g) + 3H2O +2.12 [21]
F2O + 2H+ + 4 e 2F + H2O +2.153 [11]
H4XeO6(aq) + 8H+ + 8 e Xe(g) + 6 H2O +2.18 [21]
FeO42− + 3e + 8H+ Fe3+ + 4H2O +2.20 [23]
XeF2(aq) + 2H+ + 2e Xe(g) + 2HF(aq) +2.32 [21]
H4XeO6(aq) + 2H+ + 2e XeO3(aq) + H2O +2.42 [21]
F2(g) + 2e 2F +2.87 [2][9]
F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e 2HF(aq) +3.05 [2]
Tb4+ + e Tb3+ +3.05 [11]
  1. ^ Clicking on this column to re-sort by potential didn't work in the Safari in v. 4.0.3 or earlier (but works in v. 4.0.5). In this case just reload the page to restore the original order.

參見[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Milazzo, G., Caroli, S., and Sharma, V. K. (1978). Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials (Wiley, Chichester).
  2. ^ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 Bard, A. J., Parsons, R., and Jordan, J. (1985). Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions (Marcel Dekker, New York).
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Bratsch, S. G. (1989). Journal of Physical Chemistry Reference Data Vol. 18, pp. 1–21.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Vanýsek, Petr (2006). "Electrochemical Series," in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 87th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  5. ^ 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 Vanýsek, Petr (2007). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 88th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. Chemistry of the Elements 2nd. Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. 1997. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  7. ^ 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R.(2001). Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons Inc).
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Marcel Pourbaix (1966). Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE International, Houston, Texas; Cebelcor, Brussels).
  9. ^ 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 Peter Atkins (1997). Physical Chemistry, 6th edition (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York).
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Ca Sr Ba一價[11]與兩價間的標準電極電勢正好有規律關係,因此可以估計近似值
  11. ^ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.20 11.21 11.22 11.23 11.24 11.25 11.26 11.27 11.28 11.29 11.30 11.31 11.32 11.33 11.34 11.35 11.36 Standard Redox Potential Table
  12. ^ Ti Zr Hf 的標準電極電勢變化較規律,因此可估計 Rf的標準電極電勢
  13. ^ Gordon Aylward & Tristan Findlay (2008). "SI Chemical Data", 6th edition (John Wiley & Sons, Australia), ISBN 9780470816387.
  14. ^ List of carbon reactivity series (PDF). web.anl.gov. [2013-06-06].  可知碳之活性,九年義務教育課本《化學》九年級第一學期,上海教育出版社,2007年8月第2版,ISBN 978-7-5320-8481-4/G·8506 第109、112頁、MSDS of carbon. [2013-06-06]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-05). 根據碳的相關安全資料,可之其活性範圍,推之
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 Vanýsek, Petr (2007). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 88th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Iron | compounds information
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 由−0.454和(2×−0.499 + −0.508) ÷ 3 = −0.502推算出。
  18. ^ “Glyoxal Bisulfite”, Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 3, p.438 (1955).
  19. ^ Huang, Haiyan; Shuning Wang; Johanna Moll; Rudolf K. Thauer. Electron Bifurcation Involved in the Energy Metabolism of the Acetogenic Bacterium Moorella thermoacetica Growing on Glucose or H2 plus CO2. Journal of Bacteriology. 2012-07-15, 194 (14): 3689–3699 [2013-09-10]. ISSN 0021-9193. doi:10.1128/JB.00385-12. 
  20. ^ Connelly, Neil G.; Geiger, William E. Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry. Chemical Reviews. 1 January 1996, 96 (2): 877–910. PMID 11848774. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. 
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Xenon | compounds information
  22. ^ Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 6th, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1999, ISBN 0-471-19957-5 
  23. ^ Redox Reactions, Western Oregon University website