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盖洛普最敬佩的人民意调查

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德怀特·艾森豪威尔(左上)与贝拉克·奥巴马(右上)均12次入选最敬佩男子。希拉里·克林顿(左下)22次入选最敬佩女子,埃莉诺·罗斯福(右下)13次

蓋洛普1946年起每年面向美国民众开展最敬佩的人民意调查[1],在不预先提示的情况下请受访者说出最敬佩男女姓名,只要求人物仍然在世[2][3],结果取前十名公布。在任美国总统登顶最敬佩男子次数最多,最敬佩女子以第一夫人最为常见[4]

72年来,在任美国总统58次入选最敬佩男子[1],其中德怀特·艾森豪威尔贝拉克·奥巴马均以12次居首[5]。福音派传教士葛培理一生61次进入前十,比其他人都多,其中八次位居第二[6]。其他经常入选前十的如罗纳德·里根31次,吉米·卡特28次、教宗若望保祿二世27次[7]。1977年起,在任教宗每年都入选前十[7]。评论认为此项民调一定程度上相当于名气检验[8]。榜首人选通常可以预料,学者发现前十位其他人选往往只是有名而不见得是好名声。例如坚决主张种族隔离的阿肯色州州长奥瓦尔·福布斯1958年在小石城事件后上榜。[9]

前第一夫人埃莉诺·罗斯福希拉里·克林顿登顶最敬佩女子次数最多[3]。罗斯福13次名列榜首,她20世纪40年代后期到50年代担任美国驻联合国大使联合国人权委员会主席,协助发布《世界人权宣言》,世人普遍将她誉为“世界第一夫人”[10]。克林顿是1993至2001年的第一夫人、曾任美国国务卿、纽约州联邦参议员[11]2016年大选期间成为美国史上首位女总统候选人[12]。1993至2017年,克林顿在25年间22次名列榜首,直到2018年米歇爾·奧巴馬取而代之[6]。英国女王伊丽莎白二世亮相前十达52次,比其他人选都多[6][5]奧花·雲費33次入选前十但从未登顶[5],其中14次排第二[6]

加爾各答德肋撒修女罗莎琳·卡特1980年并列排在最敬佩女子首位,贝拉克·奥巴马与唐納·川普2019年一起登上最敬佩男子榜首[13]。1946至1947年民调提问是“最敬佩的人”,1967年没有询问“最敬佩的女子”[5]。1976和2021年没有开展民调。部分受访者的回答不是公众人物,而是朋友或亲戚[14]

名单[编辑]

年份 最敬佩的男子 最敬佩的女子 参考
画像 姓名 画像 姓名
1946 MacArthur Manila (cropped).jpg 道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟[注 1] 未调查 [5]
1947 [5]
1948 TRUMAN 58-766-06 (cropped).jpg 哈里·S·杜鲁门 Eleanor Roosevelt at United Nations.png 埃莉诺·罗斯福 [15]
1949 [16]
1950 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg 德怀特·艾森豪威尔 [5]
1951 MacArthur Manila (cropped).jpg 道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟 Elizabeth Kenny NYWTS.jpg 伊丽莎白·肯尼 [17][18]
1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg 德怀特·艾森豪威尔 Eleanor Roosevelt at United Nations.png 埃莉诺·罗斯福 [19]
1953 [20]
1954 [21][22]
1955 [21][23]
1956 [21][23]
1957 [21][24]
1958 [21][24]
1959 [21][25]
1960 [21][25]
1961 JFK White House portrait looking up lighting corrected.jpg 约翰·肯尼迪 [26][27]
1962 Mrs Kennedy in the Diplomatic Reception Room cropped.jpg 杰奎琳·肯尼迪 [26][28]
1963 37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg 林登·约翰逊 [26][28]
1964 [29][30]
1965 [29][30]
1966 [31]
1967 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg 德怀特·艾森豪威尔 未调查 [32]
1968 EthelKennedySmile1968.jpg 埃塞尔·肯尼迪 [32][33]
1969 Richard Nixon presidential portrait (1).jpg 理查德·尼克松 Mamie Eisenhower 1971.jpg 玛米·艾森豪威尔 [34][35]
1970 [34][35]
1971 Golda Meir (1964) (cropped).jpg 果尔达·梅厄 [36][37]
1972 PatNixon.jpg 帕特·尼克松 [36][37]
1973 Henry A. Kissinger, U.S. Secretary of State, 1973-1977.jpg 亨利·基辛格 Golda Meir (1964) (cropped).jpg 果尔达·梅厄 [38][39]
1974 [38][39]
1975 Betty Ford, official White House photo color, 1974 (face cropped).jpg 贝蒂·福特 [40]
1976 未调查
1977 JimmyCarterPortrait (cropped2).jpg 吉米·卡特 Rose Carter, official color photo, 1977-cropped.jpg 罗莎琳·卡特 [41][42]
1978 Betty Ford, official White House photo color, 1974 (face cropped).jpg 贝蒂·福特 [41][42]
1979 Rose Carter, official color photo, 1977-cropped.jpg 罗莎琳·卡特 [5]
1980 George H W Bush and Pope John Paul II (cropped).jpg 若望保祿二世 Mother Teresa and Rosalynn Carter.jpg 加爾各答德肋撒修女罗莎琳·卡特 [43]
1981 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg 罗纳德·里根 Nancy Reagan.jpg 南希·里根 [44]
1982 Margaret Thatcher stock portrait (cropped2).jpg 玛格丽特·撒切尔 [45][46]
1983 [5]
1984 [47][48]
1985 Nancy Reagan.jpg 南希·里根 [49]
1986 Mutter Teresa von Kalkutta.jpg 加爾各答德肋撒修女 [5]
1987 Nancy Reagan.jpg 南希·里根 [50]
1988 Margaret Thatcher stock portrait (cropped2).jpg 玛格丽特·撒切尔 [51][52]
1989 George H. W. Bush presidential portrait (cropped).jpg 乔治·赫伯特·沃克·布什 [5]
1990 [53]
1991 Barbara Bush portrait.jpg 芭芭拉·布什 [54]
1992 [55]
1993 Bill Clinton.jpg 比尔·克林顿 Hillary Rodham Clinton.jpg 希拉里·克林顿 [56]
1994 [57]
1995 Mutter Teresa von Kalkutta.jpg 加爾各答德肋撒修女 [58]
1996 [59]
1997 Hillary Rodham Clinton.jpg 希拉里·克林顿 [60]
1998 [61]
1999 [62]
2000 [63]
2001 George-W-Bush.jpeg 乔治·沃克·布什 Laura Bush portrait (cropped).jpg 劳拉·威尔士·布什 [64]
2002 Hillary Rodham Clinton.jpg 希拉里·克林顿 [65]
2003 [66]
2004 [67]
2005 [68]
2006 [69]
2007 [70][71]
2008 President Barack Obama (cropped) 4.jpg 贝拉克·奥巴马 [72]
2009 [73]
2010 [74]
2011 [75]
2012 [76]
2013 [77]
2014 [78]
2015 [79]
2016 [80]
2017 [81]
2018 Michelle Obama 2013 official portrait.jpg 米歇爾·奧巴馬 [82]
2019 Barack Obama and Donald Trump.jpg 贝拉克·奥巴马唐納·川普 [83][84]
2020 Donald Trump official portrait.jpg 唐納·川普 [85][86]
2021 未调查

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 民调问题是“最敬佩的人”[5]

参考资料[编辑]

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