NF-κB

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NF-κB作用機制。在此圖中,將以Rel與p50蛋白組成的NF-κB異質二聚體為例。當處於激活狀態時,NF-κB位於細胞質中且與抑制蛋白IκBα形成複合體。通過內在膜受體的介導,一些胞外信號物質可激活一種稱為IκB激酶(IKK)的酶。IKK轉而磷酸化IκBα蛋白,這將導致後者的泛素化,使得IκBα從NF-κB上脫離下來,最終IκBα被蛋白酶體所降解。被激活的NF-κB接下來轉移到細胞核內,在這裏會結合到DNA上被稱為反應元件(RE)的特異性序列上。DNA/NF-κB 複合體接下來會招募其它蛋白,如輔激活物RNA聚合酶,這些蛋白將下游的DNA轉錄為mRNA並轉而被翻譯為蛋白質,這些蛋白最終導致細胞功能發生改變[1][2][3]

核因子活化B細胞κ輕鏈增強子(英語:nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells,簡稱為NF-κB)是一種控制DNA轉錄的蛋白複合體。NF-κB幾乎存在於所有類型的動物細胞中並參與細胞對諸多刺激的響應,這些刺激包括應激、細胞因子自由基紫外線照射、氧化LDL及細菌或病毒抗原[1][2][3][4][5]。在針對感染的免疫反應中,NF-κB起到了重要的調節作用(κ輕鏈是免疫球蛋白的重要組成部分)。NF-κB的調控失常與癌症、炎症和自身免疫病感染性休克、病毒感染以及免疫發育異常有關。NF-κB亦與突觸可塑性及記憶過程有着密切關係[6][7][8][9][10]

參考文獻[編輯]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Gilmore TD. Introduction to NF-κB: players, pathways, perspectives. Oncogene. 2006, 25 (51): 6680–4. PMID 17072321. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209954. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Brasier AR. The NF-κB regulatory network. Cardiovasc. Toxicol. 2006, 6 (2): 111–30. PMID 17303919. doi:10.1385/CT:6:2:111. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Perkins ND. Integrating cell-signalling pathways with NF-κB and IKK function. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. January 2007, 8 (1): 49–62. PMID 17183360. doi:10.1038/nrm2083. 
  4. ^ Gilmore TD. The Rel/NF-κB signal transduction pathway: introduction. Oncogene. 1999, 18 (49): 6842–4. PMID 10602459. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203237. 
  5. ^ Tian B, Brasier AR. Identification of a nuclear factor κ B-dependent gene network. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 2003, 58: 95–130. PMID 12795416. doi:10.1210/rp.58.1.95. 
  6. ^ Albensi BC, Mattson MP. Evidence for the involvement of TNF and NF-κB in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Synapse. 2000, 35 (2): 151–9. PMID 10611641. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2396(200002)35:2<151::AID-SYN8>3.0.CO;2-P. 
  7. ^ Meffert MK, Chang JM, Wiltgen BJ, Fanselow MS, Baltimore D. NF-kappa B functions in synaptic signaling and behavior. Nat. Neurosci. October 2003, 6 (10): 1072–8. PMID 12947408. doi:10.1038/nn1110. 
  8. ^ Levenson JM, Choi S, Lee SY, Cao YA, Ahn HJ, Worley KC, Pizzi M, Liou HC, Sweatt JD. A bioinformatics analysis of memory consolidation reveals involvement of the transcription factor c-rel. J. Neurosci. April 2004, 24 (16): 3933–43. PMID 15102909. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5646-03.2004. 
  9. ^ Freudenthal R, Locatelli F, Hermitte G, Maldonado H, Lafourcade C, Delorenzi A, Romano A. Kappa-B like DNA-binding activity is enhanced after spaced training that induces long-term memory in the crab Chasmagnathus. Neurosci. Lett. February 1998, 242 (3): 143–6. PMID 9530926. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(98)00059-7. 
  10. ^ Merlo E, Freudenthal R, Romano A. The IkappaB kinase inhibitor sulfasalazine impairs long-term memory in the crab Chasmagnathus. Neuroscience. 2002, 112 (1): 161–72. PMID 12044481. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00049-0. 

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