维基百科:英語國際音標

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維基百科中的英語單字發音是以國際音標(IPA)標準化標示,並不特定對應任一種方言。欲將國際音標符號與其他非國際音標的美國字典常用拼音相比較,請參閱英語發音再拼法,其明列了在美出版的十四種英語字典之發音導讀。如果欲在條目中加入其他再拼法發音,請遵循維基百科發音再拼法符號之相關規定。

符號[编辑]

IPAicon.png

(以小型大寫字母 small capitals 標示的單字屬於基本詞群。單字 bathcloth 各具有兩種讀音,分別為 /ɑː//æ/,以及 /ɒ//ɔː/

輔音/子音
IPA 範例
b buy, cab
d dye, cad
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f phi, caff, fan
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
j yes, yacht
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
ŋɡ finger, anger
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[2]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[3]
z zoo, has
ʒ pleasure, vision, beige[4]
邊輔音
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[5]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/
元音/母音
IPA 完全元音 ……後面接 R[6][7]
ɑː palm, baht, father, bra ɑr start, bard, barn, snarl, star/ɑːr./ 亦可)
ɒ lot, pod, John, doll[8] ɒr moral, forage
æ trap, pad, shall, ban ær barrow, marry
price, ride, file, fine, pie[9] aɪər fire (/aɪr./)[7]
mouth, loud, foul, down, how aʊər hour (/aʊr./)[7]
ɛ dress, bed, fell, men[10] ɛr error, merry[11]
face, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər square, scared, scarce, cairn, Mary (/eɪr./)[12][7]
ɪ kit, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
fleece, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər near, beard, fierce, serious (/iːr./)
ɔː thought, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[13] ɔr north, born, for, aural (/ɔːr./)
ɔɪ choice, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər loir, coir (/ɔɪr./)[7]
goat, code, foal, bone, go[14] ɔər force, boar, more, oral (/oʊr./)[15]
ʊ foot, good, full, woman ʊr courier
goose, food, fool, soon, chew ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[16]
juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue[17] jʊər cure
ʌ strut, mud, dull, gun[18] ʌr borough, hurry
ɜr nurse, word, girl, fern, furry (/ɝː/)[19]
弱化元音
ə Rosa’s, a mission, comma ər letter, perform(/ɚ/ 亦可)[19]
ɨ roses, emission[20] ɪə ən button
ɵ omission[21] ə əm rhythm
ʉ beautiful, curriculum ([jʉ])[22] ʊə əl bottle
i happy, serious[23] ɪ ᵊ, ⁱ (元音經常弱化:nasturtium)
 
重音 音節劃分
IPA 範例 IPA 範例
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[24]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[25]
. shellfish /ˈʃɛl.fɪʃ/, selfish /ˈsɛlf.ɨʃ/
nitrate /ˈnaɪ.treɪt/, night-rate /ˈnaɪt.reɪt/
hire /ˈhaɪər/, higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/, Windhoek /ˈvɪnt.hʊk/
Vancouveria /væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/[26]
ˌ

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ If the two characters ‹ɡ› and ‹Opentail g.svg› do not match and if the first looks like a ‹γ›, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
  2. ^ Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  3. ^ /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in dialects with the wine-whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm.
  4. ^ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  5. ^ In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in loch and by /h/ in Chanukah.
  6. ^ In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are distinguished, the long vowels are sometimes transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/. These should be fixed to correspond with the chart here.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Note that many speakers distinguish monosyllabic triphthongs with R and disyllabic realizations: hour /ˈaʊər/ from plougher /ˈplaʊ.ər/, hire /ˈhaɪər/ from higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, loir /ˈlɔɪər/ from employer /ɨmˈplɔɪ.ər/, mare /ˈmɛər/ from mayor /ˈmeɪ.ər/.
  8. ^ /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father-bother merger such as GenAm.
  9. ^ Many speakers, for example in most of Canada, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [əɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷəɪɾəɹ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspəɪɾəɹ],[來源請求] dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
  10. ^ Instead of ɛ, many dictionaries use /e/ as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[1][2][3]
  11. ^ Instead of ɛ, many dictionaries use /e/ as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[4][5][6]
  12. ^ The GenAm pronunciation is ɛr. Instead of using ɛ in RP ɛər and GenAm ɛr, many dictionaries use /e/ (eər in RP and er in GenAm) as a simplification, in other words without actually intending this sound.[7][8][9]
  13. ^ /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot-caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  14. ^ Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  15. ^ /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse-hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  16. ^ /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour-poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  17. ^ In dialects with yod-dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod-coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  18. ^ This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England and some bordering parts of Wales. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot-strut split.
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 In some articles /ɜr/ is transcribed as /ɝː/, and /ər/ as /ɚ/, when not followed by a vowel.
  20. ^ Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol ɪ [10], and Merriam–Webster uses ə̇.
  21. ^ Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /əʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  22. ^ Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ʊ [11].
  23. ^ Pronounced /iː/ in dialects with the happy tensing, /ɪ/ in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with /ɪ/, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to /i/.
  24. ^ It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  25. ^ Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  26. ^ Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).