处女膜

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
處女膜
Gray1229 zh.png
女性的外生殖器官
细节
识别标示
拉丁文hymen vaginae
MeSHD006924
TA98A09.1.04.008
TA23530
FMAFMA:20005
格雷氏p.1264
解剖學術語
不同的處女膜

處女膜(英語:hymen[1][2],是一層位於陰道口的環狀黏膜組織,包圍或部分覆蓋陰道口。處女膜是女陰與女性外生殖器的一部份[3],並且其組成與陰道類似[4][5]。普遍認為,處女膜並未具有特定的解剖生理功能[6]。青少年時期,處女膜的形狀相當多變,最常見為月牙形。處女膜的厚薄也存在許多變化,有可能相對較薄而具有彈性,也有可能較厚相對堅實,研究證實所有女孩天生都有處女膜[3][7]

包括創傷、自慰內診、運動、發生性行為等許多情境,都有可能導致處女膜的破裂,導致暫時性的出血和疼痛[8][9][需要可靠醫學來源]。因此,處女膜是否完整,不應該作為判斷女性是否發生過初次陰道性行為的依據[5][10],這樣的認知錯誤,至今依然存在於許多文化之中。

解剖学性状[编辑]

處女膜是多种雌性动物,包括黑猩猩、非洲象、海豹、海牛、狐猴、天竺鼠、鯨魚、、駱駝,以及人类所具有的组织;但是尚未解开的谜团是,只有女人跟母馬在性成熟期以后,还保留着處女膜,少數案例中的母馬若是處女膜閉鎖影響交配則會動手術切除[11]

在處女膜的中央,有一直径为1~1.5厘米的小孔,月经可通过这一小孔排出体外。这个小孔的形状各人不尽相同,根据處女膜开孔的形状,可分为圆形、椭圆形、环形、筛形、伞形、分叶形、星形、中隔分离形、月牙形、半月形、唇形等30餘种。只有少数女性天生没有處女膜;而另外少数女性處女膜上则没有孔隙,病理学称为“闭锁”,即俗称“石女”的一种;这种情况使得女性在经期经血无法排出,常在青春期发现月经迟来,并伴有小腹周期性疼痛,一般以需處女膜切开术处理。

发育及破损[编辑]

劇烈運動、挫傷及初次性交,都可能使處女膜被撕裂,而造成出血[9][需要可靠醫學來源]

性伦理[编辑]

在許多文化中,處女膜的完整性被认为是女性婚前贞节的证明,甚至传统思想观念认为这是道德问题,因为以往認為在女性首次性交时,會因男性阴茎插入而使處女膜破损出血,不過近來的一項在2005年至2006年期間跨文化背景收集的對487位女性的問卷調查研究發現,在女性第一次進行性行為時不一定都會流血,有自我報告流血的比例也少於不流血的比例的情況,根據其來源地區的不同,疼痛和出血水平也有明顯差異[12][13][14]。也有部分因剧烈运动和意外,或女性大幅度的自慰活动,在首次性行为前已经破损的情况[9][需要可靠醫學來源]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 处女膜. 术语在线. 全国科学技术名词审定委员会. [2021-02-25]. 
  2. ^ Hymen - 處女膜. 國家教育研究院雙語詞彙、學術名詞暨辭書資訊網. 國家教育研究院. [2021-02-25]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Emans, S. Jean. "Physical Examination of the Child and Adolescent" (2000) in Evaluation of the Sexually Abused Child: A Medical Textbook and Photographic Atlas, Second edition, Oxford University Press. 61–65
  4. ^ Heger, Astrid.; Emans, S. Jean Herriot. Evaluation of the sexually abused child : a medical textbook and photographic atlas. New York: Oxford University Press. 1992. ISBN 0-19-507425-4. OCLC 24288199. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Perlman, Sally E.; Nakajyma, Steven T.; Hertweck, S. Paige. Clinical protocols in pediatric and adolescent gynecology. Parthenon. 2004: 131. ISBN 1-84214-199-6. 
  6. ^ Blank, Hanne. Virgin: The Untouched History. Bloomsbury Publishing. 2008: 72 [2017-09-20]. ISBN 9781596917194. (原始内容存档于2017-09-21). 
  7. ^ Heger, Astrid.; Emans, S. Jean Herriot.; Muram, David. Evaluation of the sexually abused child : a medical textbook and photographic atlas Second edition. New York: Oxford University Press. 2000: p62. ISBN 0-19-513126-6. OCLC 64389654. An early study by Jenny (1987) confirmed that all girls are born with hymens. 
  8. ^ The Hymen. University of California, Santa Barbara. [2009-02-09]. (原始内容存档于2009-05-09). The hymen oftentimes, though not always, rips or tears the first time a female engages in penetrative intercourse, which may cause some temporary bleeding and slight discomfort. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 Janell L. Carroll. Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. 1 January 2012: 155–. ISBN 1-111-83581-0. In reality, many activities can tear the hymen, including vigorous exercise, horseback or bike riding, masturbation or the insertion of tampons or other objects into the vagina 
  10. ^ Knight, Bernard. Simpson's Forensic Medicine 11th. London: Arnold. 1997: 114. ISBN 0-7131-4452-1. 
  11. ^ This band of hymen would not permit the stallion to breed the mare. After transecting this tissue, the vagina was open allowing breeding to occur. Persistent Hymen. [2018-04-24]. (原始内容存档于2018-04-24). 
  12. ^ Rogers, Deborah J; Stark, Margaret. The hymen is not necessarily torn after sexual intercourse. BMJ : British Medical Journal. 1998-08-08, 317 (7155): 414. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1113684. PMID 9694770. 
  13. ^ Emma Curtis, Camille San Lazaro. Appearance of the hymen in adolescents is not well documented. BMJ : British Medical Journal. 1999-02-27, 318 (7183): 605. PMC 1115047. PMID 10037658 (英语). We agree with Rogers and Stark that so called rupture and bleeding of the hymen is not to be routinely expected after first sexual intercourse. 
  14. ^ Loeber, Olga. Over het zwaard en de schede; bloedverlies en pijn bij de eerste coïtus Een onderzoek bij vrouwen uit diverse culturen (PDF). Tijdschrift voor Seksuologie 32. 2008: 129–137 [2018-09-07] (荷兰语). De vragenlijsten werden verzameld in de periode van maart 2005 tot maart 2006.487 Questionnaires were collected: 173 women were Dutch, 132 Middle Eastern and Moroccan, 39 African, 32 Eastern European, 39 Asian and 53 from Middle and South America.Women from the Netherlands reported much less pain and blood loss than women from foreign countries.Women from countries where blood loss often is regarded as a proof of virginity still reported in 26.5% of the cases to have had no blood loss at first intercourse. 30% of the entire group reported severe pain: especially African women (49%) and women from the Middle East and Morocco (45%) report this. 19 % of Dutch women report severe pain.The relation between blood loss and pain is different for the different groups suggesting other than biological reasons.The use of tampons prior to first intercourse did not have a significant influence on the experienced blood loss. 

外部链接[编辑]