第四次工業革命

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4次工業革命

第四工業革命 (4IR) 指的是從18世紀工業革命開始後進入的第四個階段,它被描述成各種科技的融合,而融合的過程因使得物理、數位和生物等領域科技之間界線難分,故統稱為 網宇實體系統[1] 各種新興科技的突破為其特徵,如機器人學人工智慧奈米科技量子計算機生物科技物聯網工業物聯網技術 (IIoT)英语Industrial Internet of Things分散式共識5G增材製造/3D列印全自動駕駛汽車

世界經濟論壇的執行董事長克勞斯·施瓦布認為就數位化和人工智慧對全球經濟的影響來看,第四次工業革命和第二次機器時代息息相關,[2]但他認為生物科技的進步在前者佔有著更廣泛的角色。[3] 這些科技擾亂了每一個國家幾乎所有的產業,而這些改變的深度和廣度則帶來了整個生產、管理和治理系統的轉型。

施瓦布把新興科技的突破視為這個革命的一部分,如人工智慧機器人學物聯網自動駕駛汽車3D列印量子計算機以及奈米科技[4] 在第四波的工業革命中,我們將會看到那些具有高度擾亂潛力的新興科技的大量運用。[5]

2019年世界經濟論壇在達沃斯的會議中指出社會5.0也許是第四次工業革命後的另一波工業革命。

参考来源[编辑]

  1. ^ The Fourth Industrial Revolution: what it means and how to respond. World Economic Forum. [2018-03-20]. 
  2. ^ Compare: Schwab, Klaus. The Fourth Industrial Revolution. New York: Crown Publishing Group. 2017 [2016] [2017-06-29]. ISBN 9781524758875. Digital technologies [...] are not new, but in a break with the third industrial revolution, they are becoming more sophisticated and integrated and are, as a result, transforming societies and the global economy. This is the reason why Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) professors Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee have famously referred to this period as 'the second machine age,' [...] the title of their 2014 book [...]. 
  3. ^ Schwab, Klaus. The Fourth Industrial Revolution. World Economic Forum. January 11, 2016. ISBN 1944835008. 
  4. ^ Compare: Schwab, Klaus. The Fourth Industrial Revolution: what it means, how to respond. World Economic Forum. [2017-06-29]. The possibilities of billions of people connected by mobile devices, with unprecedented processing power, storage capacity, and access to knowledge, are unlimited. And these possibilities will be multiplied by emerging technology breakthroughs in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things, autonomous vehicles, 3-D printing, nanotechnology, biotechnology, materials science, energy storage, and quantum computing. 
  5. ^ Ab Rahman, Airini; 等. Emerging Technologies with Disruptive Effects: A Review (PDF). PERINTIS eJournal. 2017, 7 (2) [21 December 2017].