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发明年表

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以下是以时间来排列各项发明:

  • 发明时间经常是具有争议的,一项发明也往往在相同时间由多个发明者发明。

旧石器时代[编辑]

新石器时代[编辑]

前10千年[编辑]

前9千年[编辑]

前8千年[编辑]

前7千年[编辑]

前6千年[编辑]

前5千年[编辑]

前4千年[编辑]

前3千年[编辑]

前2千年[编辑]

前1千年[编辑]

第1千年[编辑]

第2千年[编辑]

11世纪[编辑]

12世纪[编辑]

13世纪[编辑]

14世纪[编辑]

15世纪[编辑]

16世纪[编辑]

17世纪[编辑]

18世纪[编辑]

19世紀[编辑]

1800年代[编辑]

1810年代[编辑]

1820年代[编辑]

1830年代[编辑]

1840年代[编辑]

1850年代[编辑]

1860年代[编辑]

1870年代[编辑]

1880年代[编辑]

1890年代[编辑]

20世纪[编辑]

1900年代[编辑]

1910年代[编辑]

1920年代[编辑]

1930年代[编辑]

1940年代[编辑]

and MP3

1950年代[编辑]

1960年代[编辑]

1970年代[编辑]

1980年代[编辑]

1990年代[编辑]

第3千年[编辑]

21世纪[编辑]

2000年代[编辑]

参见[编辑]

脚注[编辑]

  1. ^ Semaw, S.; M. J. Rogers; J. Quade; P. R. Renne; R. F. Butler; M. Domínguez-Rodrigo; D. Stout; W. S. Hart; T. Pickering; S. W. Simpson. 2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution. 2003, 45: 169–177. PMID 14529651. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(03)00093-9. 
  2. ^ De Heinzelin, J; Clark, JD; White, T; Hart, W; Renne, P; Woldegabriel, G; Beyene, Y; Vrba, E. Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. Science. 1999, 284 (5414): 625–9. PMID 10213682. doi:10.1126/science.284.5414.625. 
  3. ^ Harvard Gazette, Invention of cooking drove evolution of the human species
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 http://discovermagazine.com/2013/may/09-archaeologists-find-earliest-evidence-of-humans-cooking-with-fire "Until the Wonderwerk Cave find, Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, a lakeside site in Israel, was considered to have the oldest generally accepted evidence of human-controlled fire."
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 James, Steven R. Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene: A Review of the Evidence (PDF). Current Anthropology (University of Chicago Press). February 1989, 30 (1): 1–26 [2012-04-04]. doi:10.1086/203705. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2015年12月12日). 
  6. ^ http://www.earth.columbia.edu/articles/view/2839 "Anthropologists have yet to find an Acheulian hand axe gripped in a Homo erectus fist but most credit Homo erectus with developing the technology."
  7. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v477/n7362/abs/nature10372.html
  8. ^ http://www.sciencemag.org/content/304/5671/725.full
  9. ^ Stiner, Mary C.; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran. Hearth-side socioeconomics, hunting and paleoecology during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution. 2011, 60 (2): 213–33. PMID 21146194. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.10.006. 
  10. ^ Hadfield, Peter, Gimme Shelter
  11. ^ Earliest evidence of art found
  12. ^ Kouwenhoven, Arlette P., World's Oldest Spears
  13. ^ Perreault, C.; Mathew, S. Dating the origin of language using phonemic diversity. PLoS ONE. 2012, 7 (4): e35289. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...735289P. PMC 3338724. PMID 22558135. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035289. 
  14. ^ Mazza, PPA; Martini, F; Sala, B; Magi, M; Colombini, MP; Giachi, G; Landucci, F; Lemorini, C; Modugno, F; Ribechini, E. A new Palaeolithic discovery: tar-hafted stone tools in a European Mid-Pleistocene bone-bearing bed. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2006, 33 (9): 1310. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2006.01.006. 
  15. ^ Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2011 [2017-10-02]. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq234. 
  16. ^ Fire As an Engineering Tool of Early Modern Humans. doi:10.1126/science.1175028. 
  17. ^ Middle Paleolithic Shell Beads in Israel and Algeria. Science. 2006 [2017-10-02]. doi:10.1126/science.1128139. 
  18. ^ Uniquely Human page 163. Books.google.com. [2011-03-25]. 
  19. ^ Yellen, JE; AS Brooks; E Cornelissen; MJ Mehlman; K Stewart. A middle stone age worked bone industry from Katanda, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science. 28 April 1995, 268 (5210): 553–556. Bibcode:1995Sci...268..553Y. PMID 7725100. doi:10.1126/science.7725100. 
  20. ^ Wadley, L; Sievers, C; Bamford, M; Goldberg, P; Berna, F; Miller, C. Middle Stone Age Bedding Construction and Settlement Patterns at Sibudu, South Africa. Science. 2011, 334 (6061): 1388–1391. Bibcode:2011Sci...334.1388W. PMID 22158814. doi:10.1126/science.1213317. 
  21. ^ Backwell, L; Errico, F; Wadley, L. Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2008, 35: 1566–1580. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2007.11.006. 
  22. ^ Jennifer Viegas. Early Weapon Evidence Reveals Bloody Past. Discovery News. 31 March 2008 [2015-08-20]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-15). 
  23. ^ It is called a notched bone, illustrated in Fig. 1, 12 Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: 13214–13219. Bibcode:2012PNAS..10913214D. doi:10.1073/pnas.1204213109. 
  24. ^ Bowler JM, Jones R, Allen H, Thorne AG. Pleistocene human remains from Australia: a living site and human cremation from Lake Mungo, Western New South Wales.. World Archaeol. 1970, 2 (1): 39–60. PMID 16468208. doi:10.1080/00438243.1970.9979463. 
  25. ^ [1] National Geographic. 2014
  26. ^ K. Wright, The Origins and development of ground stone assemblages in Late Pleistocene Southwest Asia, Paleorient, Vol. 17/1, 1991 http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/paleo_0153-9345_1991_num_17_1_4537
  27. ^ http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5946/1359
  28. ^ https://www.academia.edu/875886/Pavlov_VI_an_Upper_Palaeolithic_living_unit
  29. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/centuries-old-fabric-found-in-catalhoyuk.aspx?pageID=238&nID=61883&NewsCatID=375
  30. ^ Langer, William L. (编). An Encyclopedia of World History 5th. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1972: 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3. 
  31. ^ Conard, Nicholas J.; Malina, Maria; Münzel, Susanne C. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany. Nature. June 26, 2009, 460 (7256): 737–740. Bibcode:2009Natur.460..737C. PMID 19553935. doi:10.1038/nature08169. 
  32. ^ Small, Meredith F. String theory: the tradition of spinning raw fibers dates back 28,000 years (At The Museum). Natural History. April 2002, 111.3: 14(2). 
  33. ^ Amos, Jonathan. Ancient phallus unearthed in cave. BBC News. 2005-07-25 [2017-10-09]. 
  34. ^ [2]
  35. ^ "Chinese pottery may be earliest discovered." 美联社. 2009-06-01
  36. ^ Gregor, Thomas. Anxious Pleasures: The Sexual Lives of an Amazonian People. University Of Chicago Press (1987). p. 106 "Today we know that the bullroarer is a very ancient object, specimens from France (13,000 B.C.) and the Ukraine (17,000 B.C.) dating back well into the Paleolithic period. Moreover, some archeologists, most notable Michael Boyd—notably, Gordon Willey (1971,20) and Michael Boyd (Leisure in the Dreamtime 1999,21) —now admit the bullroarer to the kit-bag of artifacts brought by the very earliest migrants to the Americas."
  37. ^ Briggs, Helen. Prehistoric bake-off: Recipe for oldest bread revealed. 英国广播公司. 2018-07-17 [2018-07-17]. 
  38. ^ Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia; Gonzalez Carretero, Lara; Ramsey, Monica N.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Richter, Tobias. Archaeobotanical evidence reveals the origins of bread 14,400 years ago in northeastern Jordan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). 2018-07-16: 201801071. doi:10.1073/pnas.1801071115. 
  39. ^ Oxilia, Gregorio; 等. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic. Scientific Reports. Bibcode:2015NatSR...512150O. doi:10.1038/srep12150. 
  40. ^ Farming Was So Nice, It Was Invented at Least Twice. sciencemag.org. 2013-07-04 [2018-03-26]. 
  41. ^ The Development of Agriculture. nationalgeographic.com. [26 March 2018]. (原始内容存档于2016-04-14). 
  42. ^ Krebs, Robert E. & Carolyn A. Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions & Discoveries of the Ancient World. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2003. ISBN 0-313-31342-3. 
  43. ^ Simmons, Paula; Carol Ekarius. Storey's Guide to Raising Sheep. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing LLC. 2001. ISBN 978-1-58017-262-2. 
  44. ^ Zhijun, Zhao. The Middle Yangtze region in China is one place where rice was domesticated: phytolith evidence from the Diaotonghuan Cave, Northern Jiangxi. Antiquity: 885–897. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00087524. 
  45. ^ Archived copy. [2015-11-01]. (原始内容存档于2015-11-18). 
  46. ^ McGovern, Patrick E.; Zhang, Juzhong; Tang, Jigen; Zhang, Zhiqing; Hall, Gretchen R.; Moreau, Robert A.; Nuñez, Alberto; Butrym, Eric D.; Richards, Michael P.; Wang, Chen-shan; Cheng, Guangsheng; Zhao, Zhijun; Wang, Changsui. Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 21 December 2004, 101 (51): 17593–17598 [26 March 2018]. Bibcode:2004PNAS..10117593M. PMC 539767. PMID 15590771. doi:10.1073/pnas.0407921102 –通过www.pnas.org. 
  47. ^ Heskel, Dennis L. A Model for the Adoption of Metallurgy in the Ancient Middle East. Current Anthropology. 1983, 24 (3): 362–366. doi:10.1086/203007. 
  48. ^ Piotr Bienkowski; Alan Millard. Dictionary of the Ancient Near East. University of Pennsylvania Press. 2010-04-15: 233. ISBN 978-0-8122-2115-2. 
  49. ^ Li, Li. China's Cultural Relics 3rd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2011: 139–140. ISBN 9780521186568. 
  50. ^ Loewe (1968), 170–171
  51. ^ Jared Diamond "The Third Chimpanzee"
  52. ^ D. T. Potts. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. 2012: 285. 
  53. ^ Anthony, David A. The horse, the wheel, and language: how Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. 2007: 67. ISBN 0-691-05887-3. 
  54. ^ Per Enghag. Encyclopedia of the Elements. John Wiley & Sons. 11 March 2008: 146. ISBN 978-3-527-61234-5. 
  55. ^ Steven Roger Fischer. History of Writing. Reaktion Books. 4 April 2004: 47. ISBN 978-1-86189-167-9. 
  56. ^ Paul Johnson. The Civilization Of Ancient Egypt. HarperCollins. 3 November 1999: 163. ISBN 978-0-06-019434-5. 
  57. ^ Boyle, Alan. 4,500-year-old harbor structures and papyrus texts unearthed in Egypt. NBC. 15 April 2013. 
  58. ^ Marouard, Gregory; Tallet, Pierre. Wadi al-Jarf - An early pharaonic harbour on the Red Sea coast. Egyptian Archaeology. 2012, 40: 40–43 [18 April 2013]. 
  59. ^ Kilmer & Civil 1986,[页码请求].
  60. ^ David S. Anthony, The Horse, The Wheel and Language: How bronze age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world (2007), pp. 397-405.
  61. ^ http://www.historyofglass.com/glass-invention/who-invented-glass/.
  62. ^ 62.0 62.1 http://whoinvented.blogspot.com.au/2008/05/inventions-2nd-millennium-bc-2000-bc-to.html.
  63. ^ History Channel, Where Did It Come From? Episode: "Ancient China: Agriculture"
  64. ^ http://www.michaelppowers.com/prosperity/coins.htm.
  65. ^ http://inventors.about.com/od/famousinventions/fl/Who-Invented-Scissors.htm.
  66. ^ Buisseret (1998), 12.

参考文献[编辑]

  • 艾萨克·阿西莫夫. 《阿西莫夫的科学与发现年表(Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery)》. Harper & Row. 1989年. ISBN 0-06-015612-0. 
  • 爱德华·德博诺. 《Eureka! An Illustrated History of Inventions from the Wheel to the Computer》. Thames & Hudson. 1974年. 
  • John Gowlett. 《Ascent to Civilization"》. McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1992年. ISBN 0-07-544312-0. 
  • Richard Platt. 《Eureka!: Great Inventions and How They Happened》. 2003年. 

外部链接[编辑]