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农业史

维基百科,自由的百科全书
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农业史是农业的历史。农业是关于栽培植物和动物的产业。在12000年前,农业开始发展。虽然早期的人们为产生效益,已经开始改变当时的植物和动物利益。但在这之前,仍然以刀耕火种为主。[1][2] 自早期栽培时期起,农业经历了显著发展。西亚的肥沃的新月地区、埃及印度是最早按照计划播种和收获的地区,这些植物曾经聚集在野外。农业自主发展发生在中国的北部和南部,非洲的萨赫勒地区,新几内亚,部分印度和一些地区美洲。[3] 诸如灌溉,作物轮作和施肥的农业技术在新石器革命后不久发展,但是是在过去的200年才取得显著进展。哈伯-博世法合成硝酸铵是一项重大突破,使作物产量克服以前的限制而增产。

在过去的一个世纪,发达的国家和略微逊色的发展中国家的农业具有强大的生产力。合成肥料和农药、选育和机械化替代了人类劳动。近期的农业史已经与一系列的政治问题紧密联系起来,他们包括水污染,生物燃料,转基因生物,关税和农业补贴。近年来,出现了对农业机械化的外部环境影响的反对和对有机运动和可持续农业的支持。

起源[编辑]

学者们已经开发出了许多假说来解释农业的历史渊源。基于从西南亚和中国的证据,从狩猎采集过渡到农业社会是由于种子的强化和提高。当前的模型表明,使用各种食物资源更为集中。

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Gammage, Bill.  '…far more happier than we Europeans': Aborigines and farmers (PDF). London Papers in Australian Studies (formerly Working Papers in Australian Studies) (London: Menzies Centre for Australian Studies. King’s College. Each year the Centre publishes London Papers in Australian Studies . These are representative of some of the most recent and exciting intellectual work in Australian Studies.). 2005, (12): 1–27 [23 November 2010]. ISSN 1746-1774.  外部链接存在于|journal= (帮助)
  2. ^ Gammage, Bill. The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines made Australia. Crows Nest, N.S.W: Allen & Unwin (Online page; Interview about the book, 11 Oct 2011.). October 2011 [12 Oct 2011]. ISBN 9781742377483. [Jacket inside front cover summary:]
    Across Australia, early Europeans commented again and again that the land looked like a park. With extensive grassy patches and pathways, open woodlands and abundant wildlife, it evoked a country estate in England. Bill Gammage has discovered this was because Aboriginal people managed the land in a far more systematic and scientific fashion than we have ever realised.
    For over a decade, he has examined written and visual records of the Australian landscape. He has uncovered an extraordinarily complex system of land management using fire, the life cycles of native plants, and the natural flow of water to ensure plentiful wildlife and plant foods throughout the year.
    We know Aboriginal people spent far less time and effort than Europeans in securing food and shelter, and now we know how they did it. With details of land-management strategies from around Australia, The Biggest Estate on Earth rewrites the history of this continent, with huge implications for us today. Once Aboriginal people were no longer able to tend their country, it became overgrown and vulnerable to the hugely damaging bushfires we now experience.
    ... And what we think of as virgin bush in a national park is nothing of the kind.  参数|quote=值左起第37位存在line feed character (帮助); 外部链接存在于|publisher= (帮助)
  3. ^ In particular, the history of maize cultivation in southern Mexico dates back 9000 years. New York Times, accessdate=2010-5-4