羅興亞人在緬甸西部的衝突

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羅興亞人在緬甸西部的衝突
Rohingya insurgency in Western Myanmar
缅甸内战的一部分
Map of Rohingya people in Rakhine State.png
Map showing the Rohingya presence in Rakhine State.
日期 1947 – present
(70年)
地点 Northern Rakhine State,
BangladeshMyanmar border
状态 Ongoing
参战方
Template:Country data British Burma
(1947–1948)
Union of Burma
(1948–1962)

Mujahideen
(1947–1961)

Supported by:
 巴基斯坦 (until 1950)[1]

Military governments (1962–2011)

RLP (1972–1974)
RPF (1974–1982)
RSO (1982–1998)
ARIF (1986–1998)[2]
ARNO (1998–2001)[2]
Supported by:
Al-Qaeda (alleged)[3]
Hezbi Islami
Hizbul Mujahideen

Jamaat-e-Islami
 Republic of the Union of Myanmar (since 2011) ARSA (since 2016)
指挥官和领导者

Current commanders:
Min Aung Hlaing
(Commander-in-Chief)
Sein Win
(Minister of Defence)
23x15px Maung Maung Soe
(Commander of the WRMC)[4]
Myanmar Police Emblem.png Aung Myat Moe
(Rakhine Chief of Police)[5]
Myanmar Police Emblem.png Sein Lwin
(Rakhine Chief of Police; until September 2017)[5]


Former commanders:
Aung Gyi (1947–1963)
Tin Oo (1947–1976)
Than Shwe
(1992–2011)

Thein Sein (2011–16)

Current commanders:
Ata Ullah[6][7]


Former commanders:
Mir Kassem(俘虜) (1947–1952)
Abdul Latif
(1947–1961)
Annul Jauli
(1947–1961)
Zaffar Kawal
(1961–1974)
Muhammad Jafar Habib (1972–1982)
Muhammad Yunus (1974–2001)

Nurul Islam (1974–2001)
参战单位

Tatmadaw

Rohingya National Army (1998–2001)[2][9]
兵力

23x15px 33 infantry battalions[4]
Previous totals:

1,100 (1947–1950)[10]

~500 (2016)[8]
Previous totals:
2,000–5,000 (1947–1950)[10]

2,000 (1952)[10]
伤亡与损失
2016–17:
45 security personnel killed[a]
2016–17:
475 killed[11][12] and 423 arrested[13][14]

2012–2017:
2,200+ killed in total[b]
30,000 internally displaced[15]

168,000 fled abroad[16]

a 15 soldiers, 29 policemen and 1 immigration officer.[11][12]

b 2012: 168,[17][18] 2013: 50+,[19][20] 2016–17: 2,000+[11][21][22][23]

羅興亞人在緬甸西部的衝突,是指1947年緬甸独立后開始的聖戰者恐怖主義運動,目標是把若開邦靠近孟加拉一方羅興亞人居住區併入新成立的東巴基斯坦。羅兴亚人主要是移居緬甸的孟加拉穆斯林,因為宗教、文化及種族差異,被緬甸政府拒絕承認及接納为国民,亦不享有公民权利。缅甸一直希望把他們強行遣返孟加拉,而孟加拉亦遣返大量難民到缅甸,鄰国泰国马来西亚亦拒絕接收他們。

历史[编辑]

在1947年缅甸独立后,短短幾年內,穆賈希德(圣战者)叛軍取得了飛速的進展,並驅逐了若開人村民離開穆斯林佔多数的貌奪布帝洞,1949年6月,緬甸政府的控制減少到僅剩實兑,緬甸政府指責聖戰者鼓勵數以千計的孟加拉人從東巴基斯坦非法移民缅甸使該地脫離緬甸。

1948年缅甸軍方開始鎮壓他们,互有勝負。在20世紀60年代開始,叛亂分子認為有不再有任何希望,於是陸續投降交出他們的武器。

在20世紀70年代,孟加拉解放戰爭期間他們恢复活動,遭缅甸大力镇壓,造成佛伊两教衝突和孟加拉關係緊張(許多穆斯林難民逃往鄰國孟加拉國)。

20世紀90年代起,恐怖組織羅興亞團結組織在緬甸-孟加拉國邊界附近襲擊緬甸當局並多次與佛教徒衝突。

2016年緬甸羅興亞人迫害期間,因應緬甸政权更替,武装組織恢复活動,遭缅甸大力镇壓,目前暴力衝突已造成超過240人死亡,約25萬流亡及成为難民,而东南亚多国拒絕接收難民。

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为UNu的参考文献提供内容
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Bangladesh Extremist Islamist Consolidation. by Bertil Lintner. [21 October 2012]. 
  3. ^ Rohingyas trained in different Al-Qaeda and Taliban camps in Afghanistan. By William Gomes. [22 October 2012]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Defence Services Historical Museum and Research Institute
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 New Rakhine Police Chief Appointed. www.irrawaddy.com. 6 September 2017 [13 September 2017]. 
  6. ^ Millar, Paul. Sizing up the shadowy leader of the Rakhine State insurgency. Southeast Asia Globe Magazine. 16 February 2017 [24 February 2017]. 
  7. ^ J, Jacob. Rohingya militants in Rakhine have Saudi, Pakistan links, think tank says. 15 December 2016. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 CNN, Katie Hunt. Myanmar Air Force helicopters fire on armed villagers in Rakhine state. CNN. [15 November 2016]. 
  9. ^ PRESS RELEASE: Rohingya National Army (RNA) successfully raided a Burma Army Camp 30 miles from nort.... rohingya.org. 28 May 2001 [21 October 2016]. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Yegar, Moshe. Between integration and secession: The Muslim communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lanham (Lexington Books). 2002: 37,38,44 [21 October 2012]. ISBN 0739103563. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 Slodkowski, Antoni. Myanmar army says 86 killed in fighting in northwest. Reuters India. 15 November 2016 [17 November 2016]. 
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Nearly 400 die as Myanmar army steps up crackdown on Rohingya militants. Reuters. [1 September 2017]. 
  13. ^ Lone, Wa; Lewis, Simon; Das, Krishna N. Exclusive: Children among hundreds of Rohingya detained in Myanmar crackdown. Reuters. 17 March 2017 [18 March 2017]. 
  14. ^ Hundreds of Rohingya held for consorting with insurgents in Bangladesh – Regional | The Star Online. The Star (Malaysia). 18 March 2017 [18 March 2017]. 
  15. ^ Rohingyas and the Right to have Rights. [22 October 2012]. (原始内容存档于14 August 2012). [失效連結]
  16. ^ Tan, Vivian. Over 168,000 Rohingya likely fled Myanmar since 2012 – UNHCR report. UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 3 May 2017 [8 May 2017]. 
  17. ^ Press Release (PDF). Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 21 August 2012 [27 October 2012]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于27 October 2012).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  18. ^ Burma violence: 20,000 displaced in Rakhine state. BBC News. 28 October 2012 [28 October 2012]. (原始内容存档于29 October 2012).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  19. ^ Burma jails 25 Buddhists for mob killings of 36 Muslims in Meikhtila. The Guardian. 11 July 2013 [14 July 2013]. 
  20. ^ Hodal, Kate. Ethnic violence erupts in Burma leaving scores dead. The Guardian. 22 March 2013. 
  21. ^ Htusan, Esther. Myanmar: 71 die in militant attacks on police, border posts. AP News. 25 August 2017 [25 August 2017]. 
  22. ^ Burmese government 'kills more than 1,000 Rohingya Muslims' in crackdown. The Independent. 8 February 2017 [27 June 2017]. 
  23. ^ Rebecca Wright, Ben Westcott. At least 270,000 Rohingya flee Myanmar violence in 2 weeks, UN says. CNN. 8 September 2017 [8 September 2017].