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巨蛇座

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巨蛇座
Serpens
星座
Serpens CaputSerpens Cauda
縮寫Ser
所有格Serpentis
象徵物
赤經巨蛇首:15h 10.4m至16h 22.5m
巨蛇尾:17h 16.9m至18h 58.3m
赤緯巨蛇首:25.66°至-03.72°
巨蛇尾:06.42°至-16.14°
家族武仙家族
面積巨蛇首:428平方度
巨蛇尾:208平方度
合計:637平方度平方度 (第23)
主要恆星11
拜耳/佛氏
恆星
57
行星的恆星15
亮度3m以上的恆星1
距離在10秒差距(32.62光年)內的恆星2
最亮星天市右垣七 (2.63m)
最近的恆星GJ 1224
(24.60 ly, 7.54 pc)
梅西爾天體2
流星雨0
鄰接星座巨蛇首:
北冕座
牧夫座
室女座
天秤座
蛇夫座
武仙座

巨蛇尾:
天鷹座
蛇夫座
人馬座
盾牌座
可以看見的緯度範圍: +80°至−80°之間
最適合觀賞的月份:七月

巨蛇座北天星座,屬公元二世紀天文學家克勞狄烏斯·托勒密所劃48個星座和國際天文學聯合會承認的88個現代星座。星座拉丁語原名「Serpens」源自古希臘語Ὄφις」,意為「大蛇」。巨蛇座由西側巨蛇首與東面巨蛇尾組成,兩者互不相連,以蛇夫座相隔,這在現代星座可謂獨一無二。星座圖案顯示巨蛇從蛇夫身後經過,其中天乳代表蛇頭,市樓四代表蛇尾。

2.63視星等紅巨星天市右垣七位於蛇首,是巨蛇座最亮恆星M5球狀星團變星巨蛇座R周增二都是肉眼可見的蛇首天體。星座的知名河外天體眾多,西佛六重星系的密集程度在已知星系團名列前茅,阿普220極亮紅外星系原型,霍格天體屬非常罕見的環星系,也是最著名的環星系。

蛇尾經過銀河平面,包含許多銀河系深空天體,如鷹星雲與關聯的M16星團。鷹星雲長70光年,寬50光年,哈伯太空望遠鏡在其中拍下三片塵埃雲的著名照片《創生之柱》。蛇尾其他引人注目的天體包括:紅方塊星雲屬極其罕見的方形天體,韋斯特豪特40是附近包含分子雲電離氫區的龐大恆星形成區。

歷史[編輯]

倫敦1825年左右發行的星圖卡片《烏拉尼亞之鏡》,顯示蛇夫手持巨蛇。蛇尾上方是波尼亞托夫斯基的金牛座,現已廢棄;下方是盾牌座

巨蛇座在希臘神話代表治療師阿斯克勒庇俄斯蛇夫座)手中的,據稱阿斯克勒庇俄斯所殺的蛇臨死前獲另一條蛇所帶復活藥草救援。蛇每年蛻皮,是古希臘人眼中重生的象徵,江湖傳言稱阿斯克勒庇俄斯從復活的蛇那裡學到起死回生之術。上述說法很可能是蛇夫座與巨蛇座挨在一起的原因,但學界對此尚無定論。部分星圖上的巨蛇座盤旋在蛇夫座周圍,但大部分顯示巨蛇從蛇夫身後或兩腳間穿過。[1]

少數古代星圖把巨蛇與蛇夫分成兩個星座,大部分劃為一個。約翰·拜耳把巨蛇座與蛇夫座分開,按拜耳命名法為星體編目時也是如此。20世紀20年代尤金·德爾波特劃分現代星座邊界時也把兩星座分開,為區分兩者把巨蛇座分成巨蛇頭與巨蛇尾兩部分,中間以蛇夫座相隔。[1]代表「頭」和「尾」的辭彙分別是「caput」與「cauda」,均為拉丁語[2]

中國古代天文學用巨蛇座大部分恆星代表市場周圍牆壁,其中天市垣代表天上市場,天市左垣天市右垣分別代表左側(東面)和右側(西面)的牆壁。天市垣大部分恆星位於蛇夫座與代表赫丘利武仙座。巨蛇座星體劃入其他星官的比較少,蛇尾兩顆星體屬市樓,代表管理市場的政府機構。[3]蛇尾還有一顆恆星位於代表珠寶或貴重物品市場的列肆[4]。蛇首的天乳同名星官,代表太子的母親或皇帝的奶媽[5][1]

巴比倫天文學把巨蛇座分成兩部分,分別叫「Mušḫuššu」和「Bašmu」。其中「Mušḫuššu」代表的生物融龍、獅、鳥特徵與一身,同長蛇座略有相似;「Bašmu」是有角的蛇,與歐多克索斯星座「Ὄφις」略有相似,其中「Ὄφις」意為大蛇,正是托勒密劃分巨蛇座所指。[6]

簡介[編輯]

夜空88個現代星座只有巨蛇座分成兩部分,分別稱為「巨蛇首」和「巨蛇尾」。巨蛇座的劃分離不開蛇夫座,這種需其他星座配合定義的情況同樣獨一無二。[1]

巨蛇首南接天秤座,東臨室女座牧夫座,北靠北冕座,西挨蛇夫座與武仙座。巨蛇尾南接人馬座,東臨盾牌座天鷹座,北面與西面緊挨蛇夫座。兩部分共覆蓋636.9平方度夜空,在88個星座排第23,北半球每年夏季在北天或南天都能清晰地看到巨蛇座。星座主星群包含11顆星體,共108顆星超過6.5視星等。[注 1][8]

比利時天文學家德爾波特1930年正式劃分星座邊界,巨蛇首是十條邊組成的多條形,巨蛇尾增至22條邊(見文首信息框)。巨蛇首在赤道坐標系統赤經位於15h 10.4m至16h 22.5m範圍,赤緯在25.66°到−03.72°之間。巨蛇尾的赤經位於17h 16.9m至18h 58.3m,赤緯在06.42°到−16.14°。[9]1922年,國際天文學聯合會確定以三字母縮寫「Ser」代表巨蛇座[9][10]

顯著特點[編輯]

恆星[編輯]

巨蛇首[編輯]

巨蛇座(蛇首)可以肉眼識別

紅巨星天市右垣七是巨蛇座最亮的恆星,代表蛇的心臟,離地約23秒差距,光譜等級K2III,亮度2.63±0.009視星等[11]。附近有肉眼不可見的黯淡星體繞天市右垣七旋轉[12]。同樣位於天市右垣七附近的蜀增一亮度4.42±0.05視星等,與太陽類似[13],距地球約12秒差距[14]。距太陽系約14秒差距的巨蛇座ψ聯星[15],其中主星與蜀增一均屬類太陽恆星[16]

天市右垣五天市右垣四周增七組成獨特的三角形,代表蛇頭,周增八靠近天市右垣四與周增七之間的中途位置。四顆星以3.67視星等的白主序星天市右垣五最亮,離地約160秒差距;[17]估計該星與附近的十等星存在物理關聯[18],只是無法確認[19]。天市右垣五與天市右垣四之間的蒭藁變星巨蛇座R最亮時達到五等星標準,肉眼便可觀測。但就像其他蒭藁變星一樣,該星最暗時還不到14等星標準。[20]天市右垣四屬F型次巨星,只不過距太陽系比較近,「只有」11秒差距所以顯得很亮,達到3.84±0.05視星等[21],人類已發現該星存在類太陽振盪[22]

天市右垣六是蛇頭與心臟間的多恆星系,代表部分蛇體[23],距地球約70秒差距。系內共有四顆恆星,合併亮度3.79視星等[24],光亮基本由合併亮度3.8視星等的兩顆產生[25]。其中主星是白次巨星兼矮造父變星,平均亮度4.23視星等[26]鋇星秦增二與天市右垣六的實際距離估計「只有」70秒差距[27][28]。天市右垣六與天市右垣五中途位置的巨蛇座χ獵犬座α2型變星,也是肉眼可見的知名變星,平均5.33視星等的亮度以1.5天為周期波動,幅度0.03視星等[29]

天市右垣八天乳都是三等A型主序星,代表心臟下方的部分蛇身[30][31]。兩星各具特色:天市右垣八是金屬線星[32],天乳是聯星[33]。天乳西北面不遠處的巴增五也是A型主序星,同時還屬聯星,主星又屬牧夫座λ型星含量與太陽相當,還有極少量鐵峰頂元素[34]天乳增一位於天乳東北方向幾度外,是光譜聯星[35],由熾熱的B型巨星與A型主序星組成。主星屬慢脈動B型變星,促使聯星亮度在0.03視星等範圍變化[36]

蛇首的天琴座RR型變星眾多,但大部分過於黯淡,只能用專業器材觀測,最亮的巨蛇首VY只是十等星,亮度閃爍周期每世紀延長約1.2秒[37]周增二也是變星但類型不同,是已經冷卻的紅巨星,以87天周期在5.89至7.07視星等閃耀[38]。該星呈現與天津增九相反的特徵[39],低溫氣體落到星體表面,在正常放射線旁形成紅移氫吸收線[40]

巨蛇座許多恆星已發現行星,其中最亮的巨蛇座ω屬橙巨星,位於天市右垣八與天乳之間,擁有至少1.7倍木星質量的行星[41]巨蛇座NN白矮星紅矮星組成的食聯星[42],估計很可能包含兩顆行星,導致食聯星周期變化[43]。類太陽恆星HD 137510沒有行星,但棕矮星沙漠範圍卻有棕矮星相伴[44]

PSR B1534+11由兩顆相互環繞旋轉的中子星組成,其一是周期37.9毫秒的脈衝星。兩顆中子星相隔一千秒差距,曾用於檢驗阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦廣義相對論理論,結果表明星系的相對論參數與理論預測值誤差不超過0.2個百分點。[45]。科學家在星系非脈衝星與赤道脈衝星風交叉時測得X射線排放,還發現星系軌道略有變化[46]

巨蛇尾[編輯]

巨蛇座(蛇尾)可以肉眼識別

蛇尾最亮的天市左垣八與天市右垣七主星同屬K型紅巨星,但特殊之處在於約有2.16小時周期呈現類太陽振盪[47]。巨蛇尾星群包含天市左垣七天市左垣十,星群在三恆星系天市左垣十附近與巨蛇首的天乳相交[12],天市左垣十距太陽系約105秒差距[48]。星系內兩顆恆星合併亮度約3.5視星等,組成角距離僅2.2毫弧秒的光譜聯星[49],現代設備都無法分開觀測,只知主星是過量的白巨星[48]。代表蛇尾尖的天市左垣七也是多恆星系,由相隔近半弧分的兩顆A型主序星組成,合併亮度約4.1視星等[12]

巨蛇尾與蛇夫座邊界附近的東海增一市樓四市樓二都是四等星,其中後兩顆是A型主序星[50][51],東海增一是F型主序星[52]。市樓四是單恆星[12]並有九等星伴侶[53]。市樓二是矮造父變星,亮度變化幅度0.01視星等[54]。1909年,市樓二附近出現共生變星巨蛇座RT[55],但最亮也只達到十等星範圍[56]

東海增二是三恆星系[57],主星是A型主序星與橙巨星組成的光學聯星[58],從星也是橙巨星[59]。星系屬不規則變星,亮度在5.17至5.2範圍閃爍[60]。1970年,新星巨蛇座FH出現在東海增二北側附近,亮度最高達到4.5視星等[61]。巨蛇座雲靠近東海增二位置有多顆獵戶型變星。MWC 297是赫比格Be星,1994年一度呈現巨大的X射線耀斑,X射線光度增強五倍後回歸沉寂。[62]該星還存在星周盤[63]。巨蛇座VV也是獵戶型變星,屬赫比格Ae星並呈現矮造父變星脈衝特徵[64],而且像MWC 297一直有星周盤環繞[65]。兩星均屬獵戶座UX星[66],亮度變化不均勻[67]

HR 6958又稱巨蛇星MV,是肉眼隱約可見的獵犬座α2型變星[68]。該星大部分鐵封頂元素的金屬量比太陽高十倍,分子量更大的元素甚至上千倍,還含有過量[69]。肉眼勉強可見的HD 172365很可能是IC 4756疏散星團後期藍掉隊星[70],所含過量非常多[71]大陵五型變星HD 172189同樣位於IC 4756疏散星團[72],是5.7天周期的食聯星。其中主星也是矮造父變星,多種脈衝頻率與食聯星效果共同影響,令合併亮度變化幅度達到0.1視星等[73]

蛇尾經過銀河平面,包含許多巨大的OB星,其中不少肉眼便可觀測,如尚具變星特徵的早期Be星巨蛇座NW。研究表明該星可能融仙王座β型變星慢脈動B型變星特徵於一身,人類此前極少發現同類星體。[74]肉眼不可見的天琴座β型變星HD 167971又名巨蛇座MY,是三顆熾熱O型星組成的三恆星系,屬NGC 6604疏散星團[75]。組成食雙星的兩顆藍巨星有一顆光譜等級還是O7.5III,代表恆星早期;第三顆是藍巨星或藍超巨星,光譜等級在O型後期或B型早期範圍[76]。HD 166734同屬食聯星[77],包含兩顆相互環繞旋轉的O型藍超巨星[78]。光學聯星HD 161701的質量和溫度不及上述OB星,由B型主星與Ap從星組成,主星元素過量,這種恆星與Ap星組成的光學聯星絕無僅有[79]

食聯星巨蛇座W位於鷹星雲以南、蛇尾與人馬座交界,主星是白巨星。星體包含吸積盤,是發現時間比較早的巨蛇座食聯星,獨特之處在於遠紫外線譜線特別強。[80]。估計這類星體還在演化早期,未來將演化成雙周期變星,最後變成傳統大陵五型變星[81]沃爾夫–拉葉食聯星巨蛇座CV同樣在鷹星雲附近,由沃爾夫–拉葉星與熾熱的O型次巨星組成,周圍由估計在主星沃爾夫–拉葉階段形成的環形星雲圍繞[82]。星體相食過程不穩定,科學家提出兩種解釋但都與人類對恆星的現有認知存在偏差[83]

巨蛇尾包含少量X射線聯星。GX 17+2是低質量X射線聯星,由中子星和即便在所有低質量X射線聯星里質量也特別低的恆星組成,吸積接近愛丁頓極限[84]。GX 17+2每過三天左右會突然增亮約3.5等,估計是同步高速氣流引起[85]。巨蛇座X-1也是低質量X射線聯星,偶有X射線爆發,其中一次持續近四小時,估計是碳在「重元素海洋」燃燒引發[86]

深空天體[編輯]

巨蛇首[編輯]

M5球狀星團理想條件下可以肉眼觀測

巨蛇首不經過銀河平面,其中大量星系無法觀測,但還能看到少量銀河系天體,如天市右垣七西南約八度、緊挨氐宿增二十四M5球狀星團,理想條件下肉眼勉強可見[87],離地約2.5萬光年[88]。M5包含大量已知天琴座RR型變星[89],正以每秒超五十公里速度遠離地球[90]。星團內有兩顆毫秒脈衝星,其一屬聯星,能用於測量星團自行,還有助於人類理解中子簡併物質。現有質心如經確定,足以排除中子簡併物質的任何「軟」狀態方程[91]M5曾用於測量中微子磁偶極矩,能用於解釋軸子等假想粒子[92]。M5以南緊接帕羅馬5球狀星團,其中大量星體在銀河引力下離開,形成長三萬多光年的潮汐尾[93]

L134/L183是暗星雲集團,估計和另一片星雲都源自與銀河平面相隔36度的同一片星雲碎片,對暗星雲而言已相距很遠[94]。估計整片暗星雲集團距太陽系約140秒差距[95]。L183又稱L134N,包括眾多紅外線源,表明其中存在恆星形成前的紅外線源[96],可能是人類首次觀測星雲核心與恆星前階段核心的收縮階段[97]。核心分開三塊[98],共計約25倍太陽質量[99]

巨蛇首位於銀河平面外的深空天體亮度都低於十等,業餘天文學家無法觀測,其中最亮的NGC 5962螺旋星系只有11.34視星等[100],離地約2800萬秒差距[101]。包含低電離星系核NGC 5921棒旋星系亮度略低,距太陽系約2100萬秒差距[102]。2001年科學家在該星系發現II型超新星並起名SN 2001X[103]NGC 5964與NGC 6118都是亮度不及NGC 5921的棒旋星系[104],其中NGC 6118還有超新星SN 2004dk[105]

霍格天體是非常罕見的環星系

霍格天體離地六億光年,是非常罕見的環星系。外環主要由年輕的藍色恆星組成,內環大部分是歷史久遠的黃色恆星。針對此類星系形成的主導理論認為,螺旋星系的星臂因速度太快分離,形成環星系。阿普220也是巨蛇座罕見星系,是極亮紅外星系原型,距地球約2.5億光年。阿普220包含兩個大型交互作用星系,核心相距1200光年,兩星系內都有大量恆星形成,其中包含超十億恆星組成的大型星團,靠近星系核心部分由厚厚的塵埃雲覆蓋。[106]NGC 5953與NGC 5954是還在碰撞早期的交互作用星系,均屬活躍星系,其中NGC 5953是西佛二型星系,NGC 5954是低電離星系核型星系,兩者都在交互作用影響下大量形成恆星[107]

西佛六重星系是六個星系組成的星系群,其中四個在引力下交互作用,另外兩個只是看起來湊在一塊兒,實際距離較遠。引力束縛的星系團離地約1.9億光年,直徑約十萬光年,西佛六重星系密度在已知星系群名列前茅。天文學家預測四個交互作用星系終將合併成大型橢圓星系[106]人類原以為產生無線電的3C 326源自巨型橢圓星系,但1990年的發現表明,該天體來自北側數弧秒外更明亮的小星系[108]。小星系得名3C 326 N,其中氣體足以形成恆星,但活動因無線電星系核產生的能量受限[109]

阿貝爾2063星系群遠比西佛六重星系龐大,紅移0.0354[110]。從星系間徑向速度測量與中央的CD型星系位置來看,阿貝爾2063很可能正與附近的MKW 3s星系群交互影響[111]。NGC 5920是MKW 3s中央的活躍星系,無線電活動似乎正形成熱氣體組成的氣泡[112]。五等星貫索增十二附近的AWM 4星團包含過量金屬元素,估計是中央的NGC 6051電波星系導致[113]。阿貝爾2052星團與AWM 4類似,中央存在CD型電波星系3C 317,據信3C 317經過一定時間的沉寂又在不到兩百年前重啟[114]。3C 317確知存在四萬多個球狀星團,創下已知星系包含星團數的新紀錄[115]

3C 321是還在合併的活躍星系,上為合成圖像

4C 11.50由相隔不到五弧秒的兩個類星體組成,比絕大多數類星體間距都小,但相差甚遠的紅移說明兩者無關[116]。4C 11.50 A相對靠前且伴有其他天體,但質量不足以充分折射後方4C 11.50 B的光線來產生透境圖像[117]。3C 321與4C 11.50相比更加奇怪,其中兩星系正交互影響並合併,而且兩者看起來都是活躍星系,估計主電波星系產生的高速氣流將物質逼入從星系的超大質量黑洞,進而令從星系顯露活躍星系特徵[118]

科學家在3C 324電波星系發現引力透鏡現象,起初以為是單獨的超光度電波星系,紅移1.206,1987年才發現其中有兩個星系,另一個的紅移是0.845,在引力透境作用下把紅移1.206電波星系的光線傳向地球。這是人類首次發現多重成像電波星系,[119]估計源自橢圓星系,星系核發出的可見光和紫外線被塵埃帶遮擋[120]。PG 1553+113是波長更短的蝎虎座BL型天體,大量輻射伽馬射線,創下輻射光子能量達萬億電子伏特範圍的最遙遠天體紀錄[121]。PG 1553+113的光譜非常獨特,伽馬射線光譜範圍內的硬輻射與其他範圍的軟輻射對比顯著[122]。2012年天體在伽馬射線光譜爆發,光度持續兩晚增長三倍,人類藉機準確測得0.49紅移值[123]

科學家在巨蛇首發現許多伽瑪射線暴,其中GRB 970111亮度居已知伽瑪射線暴前列,但強度雖高,其中卻沒有發現瞬態光信號。GRB 970111所在星系起初難以捉摸,如今科學家認為是紅移0.657的西佛一型星系。[124]其他伽瑪射線暴亮度雖然不及,但爆發後的X射線餘波卻遠比GRB 970111強烈[125]。距離更遠的GRB 060526紅移達3.221,雖說測得X射線和光學餘波,但相對其他長時間伽瑪射線暴而言非常微弱[126]

巨蛇尾[編輯]

哈伯太空望遠鏡在鷹星雲拍攝的恆星形成區著名照片《創生之柱

巨蛇尾經過銀河平面,故包含的銀河系深空天體很多。鷹星雲與關聯的M16星團位於地球朝銀河系中心方向七千光年,星雲長70光年,寬50光年,哈伯太空望遠鏡在其中拍下三片塵埃雲的著名照片《創生之柱》。鷹星雲持續形成恆星,與已有約五百萬年歷史、平均溫度4.5萬開爾文的星體一起產生龐大輻射,終將摧毀這些柱狀塵埃雲。[106]名聲響亮的鷹星雲趨於黯淡,綜合亮度約6.0視星等。星雲內的恆星形成區常見蒸發氣體球,只包含一顆原恆星,與包克雲球截然不同。[127]

離地約兩千秒差距的巨蛇座OB2是OB星協,位於M16以北,包括上百顆OB星。星協約有五百萬年歷史,似乎仍在形成恆星,恆星發出的光芒照亮S 54電離氫區[128]電離氫區疏散星團NGC 6604與周圍的OB星協歷史相仿[129],如今天文學家認為星團不過是星協內密度最大的部分[130]星系盤銀暈產生的氣體相互影響,促使星團持續產生熱電離氣體[128]

IC 4756也是巨蛇尾的疏散星團,至少有恆星HD 172365可以肉眼識別[131],附近的HD 171586也能肉眼識別但不大可能與疏散星團關聯。IC 4756距太陽系約440秒差距[132],估計約有八億年歷史,對於疏散星團而言頗為久遠[133]。人類至今在巨蛇尾只找到NGC 6535一個肉眼不可見的球狀星團,可用小型望遠鏡在東海增一北側看到。NGC 6535對於球狀星團而言偏小且稀疏[134],而且非常罕見地沒有發現天琴座RR型變星[135]

MWC 922是行星狀星雲包圍的恆星,因形狀類似紅矩形星雲得名紅方塊星雲,星雲幾乎呈完美正方形,赤道區域有暗帶環繞,星雲還有類似超新星SN 1987A的同心環[136]。MWC 922是大犬座FS型變星[137],即譜線禁制線特別明亮、顯眼的Be星,估計這種情況是旁邊的聯星引起[138]。天市左垣十東側的行星狀星雲阿貝爾41中央是聯星巨蛇座MT,星雲似乎呈雙極結構,對稱軸與巨蛇座MT軌道平面基本垂直,誤差不到五度[139]。L483暗星雲的歷史很短,其中包含零級原恆星IRAS 18418-0440,與絕大多數同類原恆星相比缺乏高速星風,估計正從零級向一級轉變[140]。IRAS 18418-0440周圍是僅在紅外光下可見的變光星雲[141]

韋斯特豪特40是距太陽系比較近的大規模恆星形成區

巨蛇座雲是蛇尾南部的大範圍恆星形成分子雲,「僅有」兩百萬年歷史[142],距太陽420秒差距[143],其中已確認包含巨蛇座FIRS 1[144]、巨蛇座SVS 20等眾多原恆星[145]。美國國家航空暨太空總署的史匹哲太空望遠鏡在巨蛇座雲南部發現巨蛇南原星團[146],其中似乎仍在形成恆星[147]韋斯特豪特40離地約五百秒差距,是離地球比較近的大規模恆星形成區[148],由分子雲和附近的大規模電離氫區組成[149]。但電離氫區有分子雲遮擋,還嵌入星團難以觀測,無法像其他恆星形成區一樣得到充分研究[150]。電離氫區嵌入的星團估計包含六百多顆質量超過太陽一成的恆星[151],還有至少一顆O型星等大型恆星,電離氫區的閃電與星風泡便是在星雲影響下產生[148]

蛇尾受銀河視覺干擾,但仍可觀測眾多活躍星系,如靠近天市左垣十、蛇尾附近最明亮的活躍星系PDS 456[152]。該星系的X射線光譜變化極大,方便人類了解中央的超大質量黑洞,很可能是克爾黑洞[153]。PDS 456可能正從亮紅外星系轉變成常見的無電波類星體,但部分特徵與現有分類規則不符[152]。附近的NRAO 530耀變體偶爾放射X射線,其中一次持續不到兩千秒,創下耀變體持續時間最短的耀斑紀錄[154]。NRAO 530的無線電波呈現兩種周期變化,周期長度分別是六天和十天[155]

流星雨[編輯]

兩場日間流星雨輻射點在巨蛇座,分別是巨蛇座ω流星雨和列肆一流星雨,均在12月18至25日達到高峰[156]

注釋[編輯]

  1. ^ 6.5視星等是肉眼在城鄉結合位置理想夜空條件下能看到的光線最微弱天體[7]

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外部連結[編輯]

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