巴勒斯坦人大逃亡

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一张原巴勒斯坦人城乡位置(图中红圈)与如今以色列民族人口统计对比的地图(蓝色为犹太人居住地)

巴勒斯坦人大逃亡发生在1948年巴勒斯坦战争期间,有70万巴勒斯坦阿拉伯人(约占战前巴勒斯坦阿拉伯人口的一半)被逐出或逃离家园[1]。此次大逃亡被巴勒斯坦人称之为“纳克巴”(阿拉伯语:النكبة‎, al-Nakbah,意为“大灾难”),是整个族群碎片化、丧失资产及土地和流离失所的核心[2][3]。在"大灾难"期间,四百至六百个巴勒斯坦村庄被以色列摧毁,相关历史被抹杀[4]。"大灾难"也可泛指1948年第一次中东战争的整个时期以及至今巴勒斯坦人所持续遭受的迫害[5]。 因为其中大部分巴勒斯坦人定居在邻国的难民营中,难民的确切人数存在争议[6]。但可确定,在新成立的以色列领土上约80%的阿拉伯人居民在当时已经被驱逐或离开了故土[7][8]。1948年5月,在《以色列独立宣言》发表之前,约有25万至30万巴勒斯坦人逃离或被驱逐,这一事实即为阿拉伯联盟进入该国的重要原因,从而引发了1948年阿拉伯-以色列战争

历史学家之间对大流亡的产生原因存在本质上的分歧。流亡的因素包括犹太人的军事优势、对阿拉伯村庄的摧毁、心理战、在代尔亚辛村大屠杀之后对被犹太复国主义民兵再次屠杀的恐惧[9]:239–240,以上这些因素导致许多人在恐慌中逃离;另外还有以色列当局下达的直接驱逐令、较富裕阶层人士的自动离开[10] ,巴勒斯坦领导层的瓦解和阿拉伯人的撤离疏散命令[11][12],以及不愿在犹太人的控制下生活等等其他原因[13][14]

后来,以色列第一届政府通过了一系列法律来阻止已离开的阿拉伯人重返家园或声明索要财产,因此他们及其许多后代仍然是难民[15][16]。此后,一些历史学家将对巴勒斯坦人的驱逐描述为种族清洗[17][18]:82[19],而另一些人则对此指控提出异议[20][21][22]

难民的身份地位,尤其是以色列是否允许他们有权返回家园或给予赔偿,是持续至今的巴以冲突中的关键问题。在巴勒斯坦领土和海外的巴勒斯坦人在每年的5月15日会纪念1948年的大灾难,称之为“大灾难日”。

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ McDowall, David; Claire Palley. The Palestinians. Minority Rights Group Report no 24. 1987: 10. ISBN 978-0-946690-42-8. 
  2. ^ Honaida Ghanim, Poetics of Disaster: Nationalism, Gender, and Social Change Among Palestinian Poets in Israel After Nakba, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society March 2009 Vol. 22, No. 1 pp.23-39 p.37
  3. ^ Stern, Yoav (13 May 2008). "Palestinian refugees, Israeli left-wingers mark Nakba". Haaretz. Nakba 60 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期12 June 2008., BADIL Resource Center for Palestinian Residency and Refugee Rights; Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004, p. 270. ISBN 978-0-8133-4047-0
  4. ^ Bardi, Ariel Sophia. The "Architectural Cleansing" of Palestine. American Anthropologist. March 2016, 118 (1): 165–171. doi:10.1111/aman.12520. 
  5. ^ Honaida Ghanim, Poetics of Disaster: Nationalism, Gender, and Social Change Among Palestinian Poets in Israel After Nakba, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society March 2009 Vol. 22, No. 1 pp.23-39 pp.25-26.
  6. ^ Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie. The Consequences of Counterterrorist Policies in Israel. Crenshaw, Martha (编). The Consequences of Counterterrorism. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 2010: 356. ISBN 978-0-87154-073-7. 
  7. ^ Masalha, Nur (1992). Expulsion of the Palestinians. Institute for Palestine Studies, this edition 2001, p. 175.
  8. ^ Rashid Khalidi. Palestinian identity: the construction of modern national consciousness. Columbia University Press. September 1998: 21–. ISBN 978-0-231-10515-6.  "In 1948 half of Palestine's ... Arabs were uprooted from their homes and became refugees"
  9. ^ Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-521-81120-0
  10. ^ Schechtman, Joseph. The Arab Refugee Problem. New York: Philosophical Library. 1952: 4. 
  11. ^ Pittsburgh Press. British Halt Jerusalem Battle. UP. May 1948 [17 December 2010]. The British spokesman said that all 12 members of the Arab Higher Committee have left Palestine for neighboring Arab states… Walter Eyelan, the Jewish Agency spokesman, said the Arab leaders were victims of a "flight psychosis" which he said was sweeping Arabs throughout Palestine. 
  12. ^ Blomeley, Kristen. The 'new historians' and the origins of the Arab/Israeli conflict. Australian Journal of Political Science. March 2005, 40 (1): 125–139. S2CID 143673606. doi:10.1080/10361140500049487. 
  13. ^ George Crews McGhee. On the frontline in the Cold War: an ambassador reports. Greenwood Publishing Group. 1997: 42. ISBN 978-0-275-95649-3. 
  14. ^ Leslie Stein. The Hope Fulfilled: The Rise of Modern Israel. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2003. ISBN 978-0-275-97141-0. 
  15. ^ Kodmani-Darwish, p. 126; Féron, Féron, p. 94.
  16. ^ Overview. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA). [29 October 2011]. 
  17. ^ Ian Black. Memories and maps keep alive Palestinian hopes of return. The Guardian. 26 November 2010. 
  18. ^ Ilan Pappé, 2006
  19. ^ Shavit, Ari. "Survival of the Fittest? An Interview with Benny Morris". Logos. Winter 2004
  20. ^ David Matas. Aftershock: anti-zionism and anti-semitism. Dundurn Press Ltd. 2005: 555–558. ISBN 978-1-55002-553-8. 
  21. ^ Mêrôn Benvenis'tî. Sacred landscape: the buried history of the Holy Land since 1948. University of California Press. 2002: 124–127. ISBN 978-0-520-23422-2. 
  22. ^ Benny Morris (21 February 2008). "Benny Morris on fact, fiction, & propaganda about 1948". The Irish Times, reported by Jeff Weintraub WebCite存檔,存档日期14 August 2009