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以色列國會

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以色列國會
הכנסת
الكنيست

HaKnesset
第19屆国会
Coat of arms or logo
制度
制度 一院制
領導
議長 Yuli-Yoel Edelstein英语利库德党+未來黨
自2013年8月18日
反對黨首領英语Leader of the Opposition (Israel) Isaac Herzog英语工党
自2013年11月25日
結構
議員 120
19th Knesset.svg
政黨 執政聯盟(68席)
利库德党 (20席)
未來黨 (19席)
猶太家園黨 (12席)
以色列我们的家园 (11席)
運動 (6席)
反對黨(52席)
工党 (15席)
沙斯党 (11席)
聖經猶太教聯盟 (7席)
梅雷兹党 (6席)
和平與平等民主陣線 (4席)
聯合阿拉伯名單-阿拉伯復興運動 (4席)
巴拉德 (3席)
前進黨 (2席)
選舉
選舉模式 政黨名單比例代表制,以漢狄法分配
上次選舉 2013年1月22日
下次選舉 2015年3月17日
地址
Knesset Building (South Side).JPG
 以色列耶路撒冷以色列國會
網址
www.knesset.gov.il

以色列國會希伯來語הַכְּנֶסֶת‎‎ [haˈkneset] 聆聽,意為「聚集」[1]或「集會」;阿拉伯语الكنيستal-K(e)neset)是以色列立法機構,為一院制,有120席,議場位於耶路撒冷

以色列國會位於耶路撒冷Givat Ram英语

對以色列政府所扮演的角色[编辑]

以色列國會的職權包括以下各項:

  1. 通過各式法律
  2. 選舉總統总理(但形式上總理是由總統指派)和國家審計長英语State Comptroller of Israel
  3. 同意內閣成員任命案英语Cabinet of Israel
  4. 監督政府施政
  5. 剝奪議員或豁免權
  6. 罷黜總統和審計長
  7. 透過建設性不信任投票解散政府,同時必須解散國會,重新選舉。

總理也可以解散國會,但在選舉結束前,議員仍享有有他們現有的權力。[2]

國會大樓南翼

國會擁有法理上議會至上權英语parliamentary supremacy,只要大多數的議員同意,即使是違背基本法英语Basic Laws of Israel的法條都可能通過,除非基本法有特殊限制。為了符合1950年通過的一項方案,以色列國會曾扮演制宪议会的角色。[3]

In addition to the absence of a formal constitution, and with no Basic Law thus far being adopted which formally grants a power of judicial review to the judiciary, the Supreme Court of Israel has in recent years asserted its authority, when sitting as the High Court of Justice, to invalidate provisions of Knesset laws it has found to be inconsistent with a Basic Law.[3] The Knesset is presided over by a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker.

國會委員會[编辑]

The Knesset is divided into committees, which amend bills on the appropriate subjects. Committee chairpersons are chosen by their members, on recommendation of the House Committee, and their factional composition represents that of the Knesset itself. Committees may elect sub-committees and delegate powers to them, or establish joint committees for issues concerning more than one committee. To further their deliberations, they invite government ministers, senior officials, and experts in the matter being discussed. Committees may request explanation and information from any relevant ministers in any matter within their competence, and the ministers or persons appointed by them must provide the explanation or information requested.[2]

There are four types of committees in the Knesset. Permanent committees amend proposed legislation dealing with their area of expertise, and may initiate legislation. However, such legislation may only deal with Basic Laws and laws dealing with the Knesset, elections to the Knesset, Knesset members, or the State Comptroller. Special committees function in a similar manner to permanent committees, but are appointed to deal with particular manners at hand, and can be dissolved or turned into permanent committees. Parliamentary inquiry committees are appointed by the plenum to deal with issues viewed as having special national importance. In addition, there are two types of committees that convene only when needed: the Interpretations Committee, made up of the Speaker and eight members chosen by the House Committee, deals with appeals against the interpretation given by the Speaker during a sitting of the plenum to the Knesset rules of procedure or precedents, and Public Committees, established to deal with issues that are connected to the Knesset.[4][5]

常設委員會[编辑]

  • House Committee
  • Finance Committee
  • Economic Affairs Committee
  • Foreign Affairs and Defence Committee
  • Interior and Environment Committee
  • Immigration, Absorption, and Diaspora Affairs Committee
  • Education, Culture, and Sports Committee
  • Constitution, Law, and Justice Committee
  • Labour, Welfare, and Health Committee
  • Science and Technology Committee
  • State Control Committee
  • Committee on the Status of Women

特殊委員會[编辑]

The other committees are the Arrangements Committee and the Ethics Committee. The Ethics Committee is responsible for jurisdiction over Knesset members who violate the rules of ethics of the Knesset, or involved in illegal activities outside the Knesset. Within the framework of responsibility, the Ethics Committee may place various sanctions on a member, but is not allowed to restrict a members' right to vote. The Arrangements Committee proposes the makeup of the permanent committees following each election, as well as suggesting committee chairs, lays down the sitting arrangements of political parties in the Knesset, and the distribution of rooms in the Knesset building to members and parties.[6]

規模[编辑]

Knesset chamber, celebrating 61 years of the Knesset

The Knesset numbers 120 members, a subject which has often been a cause for proposed reforms. In 1996, then-Justice Minister Yossi Beilin, backed the ultimately unsuccessful institution of the so-called "Norwegian law", which would require appointed members of the cabinet to resign their seats in the Knesset and allow other members of their parties to take their positions while they serve in the cabinet; this would have resulted in more active members of the legislature being present in regular sessions and committee meetings. This proposed law has also been favoured by other politicians, including Binyamin Netanyahu.[7]

選舉[编辑]

國會的120個議席由直選產生,任期4年,不過有時因為提早舉行下一屆選舉而縮短。年滿18歲的以色列公民有資格在選舉中投票。

選舉採用名單比例代表制,全國劃為單一選區,各黨所得議席數目以漢狄法分配。政黨或選舉聯盟必需取得不少於總投票數3.25%(2014年修例後)的選舉門檻票數方可取得議席。[8]各黨的參選人名單是封閉式名單,選民只可投票給某一黨,而不能指定該票屬於該黨名單內的某一人。

從1949年至1992年,選舉門檻定為1%,1992年至2003年定為1.5%,其後為2%,2014年3月修例改為3.25%,於第20屆國會選舉生效。由於門檻不高,一屆國會往往會有10個以上的黨派存在,而單一政黨獨自執政的情形不常見,至今為止也未有任何一黨可以在某一屆選舉中贏得過半數議席(61席)。「聯盟」(由工黨和Mapam組成)在1969年選舉取得56席是最接近半數的一次,「聯盟」在選舉前通過政黨合併而一度在國會擁有63席的過半數。以色列每屆政府都是由至少兩黨組成聯合政府。

選舉過後,新一屆國會內各政黨的領導人與總統會面,由總統任命最有可能在國會取得過半數支持的政黨領導人籌組新政府,新總理需要通過國會信任投票方可就職。

運作[编辑]

過往有多次不信任动议在國會內提出,但是只有一屆政府(伊扎克·沙米尔政府,1990年3月15日)在不信任投票中落敗。[9]另有幾屆政府雖然未有在不信任投票落敗仍然辭職。

歷史[编辑]

Historic engraving on the Frumin House, King George St., Jerusalem.

在1949年1月20日的國會選舉後,第一次的國會會議在1949年2月14日舉行。

The term "Knesset" is derived from the ancient Great Assembly or Great Synagogue (希伯来语כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה Knesset HaGedolah) which according to Jewish tradition was an assembly of 120 scribes, sages, and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism – about two centuries ending c. 200 BCE.[10] There is, however, no organisational continuity and – aside from the number of members – little similarity, as the ancient Knesset was an essentially religious, completely unelected body.

The Knesset compound sits on a hilltop in western Jerusalem in a district known as Sheikh Badr before the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, now Givat Ram. The main building was financed by James A. de Rothschild as a gift to the State of Israel in his will and was completed in 1966. It was built on land leased from the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem.[11] Over the years, significant additions to the structure were constructed, however, these were built at levels below and behind the main 1966 structure as not to detract from the original assembly building's appearance.

Before the construction of its permanent home, the Knesset met in the Jewish Agency building in Jerusalem, the Kessem Cinema building in Tel Aviv and the Froumine building in Jerusalem.[12]

位址及建造歷史[编辑]

The Knesset in winter
  • February 14, 1949: First meeting of the Constituent Assembly, Jewish Agency, Jerusalem
  • March 8, 1949 – December 14, 1949: Kessem Cinema in Tel Aviv (Migdal HaOpera is situated there today)
  • December 26, 1949 – March 8, 1950: Jewish Agency, Jerusalem
  • March 13, 1950: Froumine Building, King George Street, Jerusalem.
  • 1950–1955: Israeli government holds architectural competitions for the permanent Knesset building
  • 1955: Government approves plans to build the Knesset in its current location
  • 1957: James A. de Rothschild informs Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion of his desire to finance the construction of the building
  • October 14, 1958: Cornerstone-laying for new Knesset building
  • August 31, 1966: Dedication of new building (in the days of the Sixth Knesset)
  • 1981: Construction of new wing begins
  • 1992: New wing opens
  • 2001: Construction starts on a large new wing that essentially doubles the overall floorspace of the Knesset compound. It opens in 2007.

大會[编辑]

每屆國會以第幾次選舉識別。1949年首次選舉選出的國會稱為「第1屆國會」,而2013年選出的一屆是第19屆。

旅遊[编辑]

國會在星期四和星期日舉辦早上導覽團,以希伯來語、英語、法語、西班牙語、阿拉伯語、德語和俄語講解。星期一、二、三的早上可觀看即場的會議。[13]

維安[编辑]

一名國會警衛

The Knesset is protected by the Knesset Guard, a protective security unit responsible for the security of the Knesset building and Knesset members. Guards are stationed outside the building to provide armed protection, and ushers are stationed inside to maintain order. The Knesset Guard also plays a ceremonial role, participating in state ceremonies which includes greeting dignitaries on Mount Herzl on the eve of Israeli Independence Day.

參見[编辑]


參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of English, Oxford University Press, 2005
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 The Knesset. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Basic Laws - Introduction. Knesset. [2010-03-05]. 
  4. ^ Legislation. Knesset.gov.il. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  5. ^ Knesset Committees. Knesset.gov.il. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  6. ^ The Organisation of the Work of the Knesset. Knesset.gov.il (February 17, 2003). Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  7. ^ Netanyahu considering forcing ministers to vacate Knesset seats Haaretz, 13 February 2009
  8. ^ www.knesset.gov.il
  9. ^ The Plenum - Motions of No-Confidence Knesset website
  10. ^ Synagogue, The Great (Heb. כְּנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה, Keneset ha-Gedolah) Jewish Virtual Library
  11. ^ Defacement in Jerusalem monastery threatens diplomatic crisis Haaretz, October 8, 2006
  12. ^ Beit Froumine. Knesset.gov.il (August 30, 1966). Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  13. ^ Knesset Times to Visit. Knesset.gov.il. Retrieved September 8, 2011.

外部链接[编辑]

坐标31°46′36″N 35°12′19″E / 31.77667°N 35.20528°E / 31.77667; 35.20528