極右派

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極右派英语Far Right)是指其政治立場位於政治光譜最右端的人士或組織。「極右派」也常被許多政治評論家用來描述一些難以歸入傳統右派的政治團體、運動和政黨。[1]

一些學者使用「極端右派」(Extreme Right)或「偏激右派」(Ultra Right)來討論位於傳統選舉政治範圍以外的右派政治團體,通常有革命右派份子、好戰的種族至上主義者和宗教極端主義者、新法西斯主義者新納粹主義者三K黨員等。在這種用法中,該名詞與不好戰的極右派或右派民粹主義者等其他形式的極右派有所區別。[2]

學者在使用「極右派」時有著至少兩種衝突的用法:[3]

傾向改革的右派運動或保守派政黨中的右派派系。他們常被稱為「不同政見的右派」(Dissident Right)、「行動主義右派」(Activist Right)或「右翼民粹主義」(Right-wing Populism)。他們的立場介於傳統保守派和極端右派之間。這些人士位於主流選舉政治之外,但他們一般是發起改革運動,而非革命。一些被認為的「極右派」的政黨則是因為與原主流中間偏右保守主義政黨意見不合,認為他們的政策和理念已偏離原來的右派路線,如英國獨立黨

新法西斯主義者新納粹主義者時常被視為「極右派」或「偏激右派」。這些團體通常具有革命性質,而非改革。新法西斯和新納粹也意指他們來自二戰之後的時代。

由於這些分類尚未普遍被接受,以及還有其他的用法存在,因此讓「極右派」的用法較為複雜。

用法[编辑]

19世紀末期,法國政治光譜可分為極左派社會主義者和激進派)、中間偏左(自由派共和黨人)、中間派(溫和派、保守派共和黨人) 、中間偏右(君主立憲支持者、奧爾良派、保守派共和黨人、波拿巴主義者)和極右派(保皇派正統派)。 不同學者在「極右派」的使用上有著衝突的用法。[4] 「極右派」最常用來描述法西斯主義納粹主義和其他偏激民族主義者,以及其他的反動意識形態與運動。[5][6][7][8] 荷蘭政治家平·佛圖恩(Pim Fortuyn)因他的移民和穆斯林政策而被英國廣播公司稱為極右派。[9] 全國公共廣播電台等曾使用「極右派」來描述一些宣揚自由市場資本主義的威權政府,像是智利奧古斯托·皮諾切特[10][11] 左派刊物《新左派評論》曾稱雷根的政策是「激進右派」(Radical Right)。[12] 「激進右派」也被用來表示「視個人為核心的自由意志主義運動」。[13]

美國國土安全部將右派極端主義定義為目標放在激進、種族或宗教少數份子的仇恨團體,而且可能致力於某項單一議題,如反對墮胎移民[14]

但「極右派」這個說法常會使人誤解。許多人所認為的「極右派」政黨,雖然抱持著民族主義,因此在社會政策上屬於右派,但有許多政黨是支持集產主義形式或類似社會主義的傳統左派經濟政策,像是英國民族黨(British National Party)、納粹黨或民族布爾什維克黨(National Bolshevik Party)。

各國極右派組織[编辑]

非洲[编辑]

歐洲[编辑]

北美洲[编辑]

南美洲[编辑]

亞洲[编辑]

大洋洲[编辑]

參見[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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