分枝杆菌属

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分支桿菌屬
結核分枝桿菌
科學分類
域: 細菌域 Bacteria
門: 放線菌門 Actinobacteria
綱: 放線菌綱 Actinobacteria
亞綱: 放線菌亞綱 Actinobacteridae
目: 放線菌目 Actinomycetales
亞目: 棒桿菌亞目 Corynebacterineae
科: 分枝桿菌科 Mycobacteriaceae
Chester 1897
屬: 分枝桿菌屬 Mycobacterium
Lehmann & Neumann 1896
模式種
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(Zopf 1883) Lehmann and Neumann 1896

分枝杆菌屬Mycobacterium)為放线菌门下的一個屬,且為分枝桿菌科唯一的屬。该属细菌包括许多已知在哺乳類动物中造成严重疾病的病原菌,包括结核杆菌Mycobacterium tuberculosis)和麻风杆菌Mycobacterium leprae).[1]希臘語中的 myco 表示「真菌」,意思是說該屬的物種通常在液態培養基的表面,形成類似黴菌的菌落。[2]

微生物特徵[编辑]

微生物細胞壁
1. 外層脂質
2. mycolic acid英语
3. 多醣arabinogalactan英语
4. 肽聚糖
5. 細胞膜
6. lipoarabinomannan英语(LAM)
7. phosphatidylinositol mannoside英语
8. 細胞壁骨架


本屬物種為好氧型細菌,且為不運動型細菌(除海洋分枝桿菌外,他可以在巨噬細胞內運動),為一種抗酸型細菌英语Acid-fast[1]。分枝桿菌並不會形成内孢子莢膜,因此常被認定為革蘭氏陽性菌。但分枝桿菌在革蘭氏染色上並無法染上結晶紫,因此被歸類於抗酸革蘭氏陽性菌,因為其缺乏外膜。

雖然說本屬不產孢子,但有兩個物種似乎例外,那就是海洋分枝桿菌Mycobacterium marinum)和牛分枝桿菌(M. bovis[3]。但進一步的研究引發了爭論。[4]

分枝桿菌的特點就是其細胞壁較其他物種厚,且呈蠟狀疏水性,並含有大量的分枝菌酸英语mycolic acids(mycolic acids)。多醣會將分枝菌酸層及肽聚糖層拉在一起,讓細胞壁變得十分堅韌。若可干擾其細胞壁的生物合成途徑,也許可以開發治療肺結核的藥物。[5]

物種[编辑]

Phylogenetic Position of the Tubercle Bacilli within the Genus Mycobacterium The blue triangle corresponds to tubercle bacilli sequences that are identical or differing by a single nucleotide. The sequences of the genus Mycobacterium that matched most closely to those of M. tuberculosis were retrieved from the BIBI database (http://pbil.univ-lyon.fr/bibi/) and aligned with those obtained for 17 smooth and MTBC strains. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree is based on 1,325 aligned nucleotide positions of the 16S rRNA gene. The scale gives the pairwise distances after Jukes-Cantor correction. Bootstrap support values higher than 90% are indicated at the nodes.

Phenotypic tests can be used to identify and distinguish different Mycobacteria species and strains. In older systems, mycobacteria are grouped based upon their appearance and rate of growth. However, these are symplesiomorphies, and more recent classification is based upon cladistics.

慢速生長菌[编辑]

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex[编辑]

Mycobacterium avium complex[编辑]

Mycobacterium gordonae clade[编辑]

Mycobacterium kansasii clade[编辑]

Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum/terrae clade[编辑]

Mycolactone-producing mycobacteria[编辑]

Mycobacterium simiae clade[编辑]

未分群[编辑]

生長速率中等[编辑]

快速生長菌[编辑]

Mycobacterium chelonae clade[编辑]

Mycobacterium fortuitum clade[编辑]

Mycobacterium parafortuitum clade[编辑]

Mycobacterium vaccae clade[编辑]

CF[编辑]

未分群[编辑]

未分群[编辑]

Mycobacteriophage[编辑]

Mycobacteria can be infected by Mycobacteriophage, bacterial viruses that may be used in the future to treat tuberculosis and related diseases by phage therapy.

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors). Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th. McGraw Hill. 2004. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  2. ^ James H. Kerr and Terry L. Barrett, "Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases", Military Dermatology Textbook, p. 401.
  3. ^ Ghosh, Jaydip, Pontus Larsson, Bhupender Singh, B M Fredrik Pettersson, Nurul M Islam, Sailendra Nath Sarkar, Santanu Dasgupta, y Leif A Kirsebom. 2009. "Sporulation in mycobacteria". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, no. 26 (Junio 30): 10781-10786. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19541637
  4. ^ Traag BA, Driks A, Stragier P, Bitter W, Broussard G, Hatfull G, Chu F, Adams KN, Ramakrishnan L, Losick R.2010. "Do mycobacteria produce endospores?" Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 12;107(2):878-81.
  5. ^ Bhamidi S. Mycobacterial Cell Wall Arabinogalactan. Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. 2009. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5. 
  6. ^ Rahman SA, Singh Y, Kohli S, Ahmad J, Ehtesham NZ, Tyagi AK, Hasnain SE (2014) Comparative analyses of nonpathogenic, opportunistic, and totally pathogenic Mycobacteria reveal genomic and biochemical variabilities and highlight the survival attributes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MBio 5(6). pii: e02020-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02020-14

延伸閱讀[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]

Template:Gram-positive actinobacteria diseases Template:Mycobacteria