放線菌門

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放線菌門
痲瘋桿菌
科學分類
域: 細菌域 Bacteria
門: 放線菌門 Actinobacteria
綱: 放線菌綱 Actinobacteria
Stackebrandt et al. 1997

放線菌(Actinobacteria)是一類革蘭氏陽性細菌,可棲息於水中或陸地上[1],雖然一開始被認定為土壤俊,但淡水中的物種可能比陸地上的更豐富[2]。曾經由於其形態被認爲是介於細菌黴菌之間的物種。它們具有分支的纖維和孢子,依靠孢子繁殖,表面上和屬於真核生物真菌類似,從前被分類爲「放線菌目」(Actinomycetes)。但因爲放線菌沒有核膜,且細胞壁肽聚糖組成,和其它細菌一樣。目前通過分子生物學方法,放線菌的地位被肯定爲細菌的一個大分支。放線菌用革蘭氏染色可染成紫色(陽性),和另一類革蘭氏陽性菌——厚壁菌門相比,放線菌的GC含量較高[3][4]。但2012年的研究顯示,一些淡水的放線菌的GC含量較低[5],這些淡水放線菌的GC比可以低至 42% 。

放線菌門市重要的細菌門之一,其下包含了最大的屬-鏈黴菌屬[6]。系統發生學的分析可以以glutamine synthetase英语序列[7]

Although some of the largest and most complex bacterial cells belong to the Actinobacteria, the group of marine Actinomarinales has been described as possessing the smallest free-living prokaryotic cells.[8]

放線菌重要的屬有:

放线菌大部分是腐生菌,普遍分布于土壤中,一般都是好气性,有少数是和某些植物共生的,也有是寄生菌,可致病,寄生菌一般是厌气菌。放线菌有一种土霉味,使水和食物变味,有的放线菌也能和霉菌一样使棉毛制品或纸张霉变。 放线菌在培养基中形成的菌落比较牢固,长出孢子后,菌落有各种颜色的粉状外表,和细菌的菌落不同,但不能扩散性的向外生长,和霉菌的也不同。放线菌有菌丝,菌丝直径有1μ,和细菌的宽度相似,但菌丝内没有横隔,和霉菌又不同。 放线菌主要能促使土壤中的动物植物遗骸腐烂,最主要的致病放线菌是结核分枝杆菌麻风分枝杆菌,可导致人类的结核病麻风病。 放线菌最重要的作用是可以产生、提炼抗生素,目前世界上已经发现的2000多中抗生素中,大约有56%是由放线菌(主要是放線菌屬)产生的,如链霉素土霉素四环素庆大霉素等都是由放线菌产生的。此外有些植物用的农用抗生素和维生素等也是由放线菌中提炼的。

下雨后空气中出现了特殊的味道,通常有三个因素:[9]

  • 潮湿的空气携带部分放线菌的孢子四处飘散,人吸入后闻到使人愉快的气味
  • 弱酸性的雨水和地表的物质反应,可能产生芳香气味,不过产生较难闻的气味更多
  • 雨后植物挥发的精油,往往令人感到香味


一般特徵[编辑]

Most Actinobacteria of medical or economic significance are in subclass Actinobacteridae, and belong to the order: Actinomycetales. While many of these cause disease in humans, Streptomyces is notable as a source of antibiotics.

Of those Actinobacteria not in Actinomycetales, Gardnerella is one of the most researched. Classification of Gardnerella is controversial, and MeSH catalogues it as both a gram-positive and gram-negative organism.[10]

Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces sp., are recognized as the producers of many bioactive metabolites that are useful to humans in medicine, such as antibacterials,[11] antifungals,[12] antivirals, antithrombotics, immunomodifiers, anti-tumor drugs and enzyme inhibitors; and in agriculture, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and growth promoting substances for plants and animals.[13][14] Actinobacteria-derived antibiotics that are important in medicine include aminoglycosides, anthracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolide, tetracyclines etc.

Streptomyces and other actinobacteria are major contributes to biological buffering of soils and have roles in organic matter decomposition conductive to crop production.[15]

Phylogeny[编辑]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [16] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[17] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by The All-Species Living Tree Project [18]



?Candidatus Planktophila limnetica Jezbera et al. 2009



?Cathayosporangium alboflavumRunmao et al. 1995



?Tonsillophilus suisAzuma and Bak 1980



Rubrobacter Suzuki et al. 1989



  Thermoleophilidae

Gaiella occulta Albuquerque et al. 2012




Thermoleophilum Zarilla and Perry 1986



Solirubrobacterales






Coriobacteriaceae




Acidimicrobiales



 Nitriliruptoridae

Euzebya tangerina Kurahashi et al. 2010



Nitriliruptor alkaliphilus Sorokin et al. 2009



  Actinomycetales

?Boyliae praeputialeYates et al. 2002



?Frankia alni(Woronin 1866) Von Tubeuf 1895



?Motilibacter peucedani Lee 2012



Acidothermus cellulolyticus Mohagheghi et al. 1986






Jiangellaceae




Micromonosporaceae




Propionibacterineae





Actinocatenispora Thawai et al. 2006 emend. Seo and Lee 2009



Glycomycetaceae




Streptosporangineae








Pseudonocardiaceae [incl. Actinopolyspora]



Corynebacterineae






Catenulisporineae




Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici 1943 emend. Witt and Stackebrandt 1991 [incl. Kitasatospora & Streptacidiphilus]





Sporichthya Lechevalier et al. 1968



Cryptosporangiaceae





Geodermatophilaceae




Nakamurellaceae




Kineosporiaceae




Kineococcus Yokota et al. 1993




Angustibacter luteus Tamura et al. 2010



Micrococcineae [incl. Actinomycetaceae & Bifidobacteriaceae]

















註:
♪ 無法單獨培養的原核生物
♠ 資料取自美国国家生物技术信息中心(NCBI)。

延伸閱讀[编辑]

參見[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Servin JA, Herbold CW, Skophammer RG, Lake JA. Evidence excluding the root of the tree of life from the actinobacteria. Mol. Biol. Evol. January 2008, 25 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm249. PMID 18003601. 
  2. ^ Ghai R, Rodriguez-Valera F, McMahon KD, et al. Metagenomics of the water column in the pristine upper course of the Amazon river. (编) Lopez-Garcia, Purification. PloS ONE. 2011, 6 (8): e23785. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023785. PMC 3158796. PMID 21915244. 
  3. ^ Ventura, M.; Canchaya, C.; Tauch, A.; Chandra, G.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Chater, K. F.; van Sinderen, D. Genomics of Actinobacteria: Tracing the Evolutionary History of an Ancient Phylum. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 5 September 2007, 71 (3): 495–548. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00005-07. PMC 2168647. PMID 17804669. 
  4. ^ MB451 Actinobacteria lecture. [2008-11-21]. [失效連結]
  5. ^ Ghai R, McMahon KD, Rodriguez-Valera F. Breaking a paradigm:cosmopolitan and abundant freshwater actinobacteria are low GC. Environmental Microbiology Reports. 2012, 4 (1): 29–35. doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2011.00274.x. PMID 23757226. 
  6. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC
  7. ^ Hayward D, van Helden PD, Wiid IJ. Glutamine synthetase sequence evolution in the mycobacteria and their use as molecular markers for Actinobacteria speciation. BMC Evol. Biol. 2009, 9: 48. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-48. PMC 2667176. PMID 19245690. 
  8. ^ Ghai R, Mizuno CM, Picazo A, Camacho A, Rodriguez-Valera F. Metagenomics uncovers a new group of low GC and ultra-small marine Actinobacteria. Scientific Reports. 2013, 3: 2471. doi:10.1038/srep02471. PMC 3747508. PMID 23959135. 
  9. ^ HowStuffWorks "What causes the smell after rain?". Science.howstuffworks.com. 2000-09-29 [2013-05-03]. 
  10. ^ MeSH(醫學主題詞)上面的Gardnerella
  11. ^ Mahajan, GB. Antibacterial agents from actinomycetes - a review. Frontiers in Bioscience. 2012, 4: 240–53. 
  12. ^ Gupte, M.; Kulkarni, P.; Ganguli, B.N. Antifungal Antibiotics. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2002, 58: 46–57. 
  13. ^ Bressan, W. Biocontrol. 2003, 48: 233–240. doi:10.1023/a:1022673226324. 
  14. ^ Atta, M.A. Austral. J. Basic and Appl. Sci. 2009, 3: 126–135. 
  15. ^ Ningthoujam, Debananda S.; Tamreihao, SuchitraSanasam K.; Nimaichand, Salam. Test. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2009, 3 (11): 737–742. 
  16. ^ J.P. Euzéby. Actinobacteria. List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. [2011-11-17]. 
  17. ^ Sayers et al. Actinobacteria. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. [2011-06-05]. 
  18. ^ All-Species Living Tree Project.16S rRNA-based LTP release 106: full tree. accessdate=2011-11-17. 
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维基物种中的分类信息:

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