德意志國防軍

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德國國防軍
Wehrmacht
Balkenkreuz.svg
德國國防軍的徽标直臂黑十字,为铁十字的变更形式

存在時期 1935–1945
國家/地區  納粹德國
效忠於 纳粹德国
部門 陆军
海军
空军
功能 纳粹德国武装力量
規模 20,700,000人(总计人数)
4,750,000人(1941年6月22日)
8,290,000人(1943年11月)
駐軍/總部 措森
參與戰役 西班牙内战
第二次世界大战
指挥官
象徵性指揮官 阿道夫·希特勒
著名指揮官 阿道夫·希特勒
赫尔曼·戈林
威廉·凯特尔
埃里希·雷德尔
卡尔·邓尼茨
罗伯特·冯·格莱姆
佩章
一式佩章 黑十字
二式佩章 纳粹卐字

德意志國防軍德语Wehrmacht)是1935至1945年間納粹德國的軍事力量。纳粹德国时的國防軍包括陸軍海軍空軍。納粹黨的武裝党衛隊單位有時也配屬於國防軍。

名称[编辑]

魏瑪共和國时代的军队按照德语称为Reichswehr,字面意思是“國家防衛”或“帝国(Reich)防御”。

希特勒纳粹党上台後,在1935年才将國家防衛軍改名为“Wehrmacht”,字面意思是“防禦力量”,故此翻译为德意志國防軍西方一般直接用Wehrmacht 借代纳粹德国时的德军。

背景[编辑]

德語中的Wehrmacht字面上的意義是「防禦力量」,原先是使用在比較一般性的意義上:這個詞彙可以用來指稱德國或其他任何國家的武裝部隊

德國的武裝部隊的正式名稱在1935年之前都是Reichswehr。到了1935年,他們才被稱為Wehrmacht。第二次世界大戰結束,德國戰敗之後,盟軍佔領德國,隨後在1955年將德意志聯邦共和國軍事力量重整。西德新設武裝部隊被稱為聯邦國防軍

現在在德語與英語中Wehrmacht這個詞彙習慣上都特指德國在纳粹德国时的武裝部隊。

歷史[编辑]

1942年德軍Panzer III戰車

第一次世界大戰結束以後,德國投降,簽署《凡爾賽條約》,規定德国軍隊不能多過十萬人,海軍則不多過一萬五千:戰艦六艘、巡洋艦六艘和驅逐艦十二艘。坦克火炮都被禁止。

但在1922年的拉巴洛條約,德國可在蘇聯訓練坦克和空軍;德國的化學武器研究和製造同樣可在蘇聯進行。結果,大約三百名德國飛行員在Lipetsk接受了訓練;一些坦克在喀山附近訓練;而毒氣則在薩拉托夫被開發。

保罗·冯·兴登堡死後,所有德國軍官發誓忠誠於希特勒

历史[编辑]

一战后,德国签订了贡比涅停战协定。军队也改名叫做和平军(德语:Friedensheer)。1919年3月,国民议会通过了一项建立一支420000人的的叫做“临时国防军”的强大军队(德语:'Vorläufige Reichswehr.)。但是,凡尔赛条约在5月被公布。6月,德国被迫签订该条约。该条约对德国军队的规模进行了严厉的限制——只允许德国拥有10万人的军队,这其中海军最多有15000人。舰队最多只能有六艘战列舰,六艘巡洋舰,十二艘驱逐舰。同时,潜艇坦克重型火炮被禁止使用。原有的空军也被取消。1921年3月23日。一个新的战后军队(国防军(Reichswehr)在1921年3月23日成立。

阿道夫·希特勒及征兵制度的恢复[编辑]

保罗·冯·兴登堡总统于1934年8月2日去世后,希特勒接管了魏玛共和国总统办公室,并因此成为了军队总司令。所有德国武装部队的军官与士兵都必须对希特勒个人宣誓效忠于元首,即希特勒的称号。到1935年,德国正公开藐视凡尔赛和约中列出的军事限制条款,而征兵制度也在1935年3月16日被重新引入。

尽管常备军规模被条约限制在100000人,每年都会有与这个数字相同规模的一群新征召兵接受训练。 征兵制度引入了德意志国防军这个名字,所以不仅1935年3月16日可以被视为它的建立之日,整个德意志国防军的组织与权力机关都可以被视作纳粹的创造,而与它的统帅部的政治立场无关(然而他们全部向希特勒进行了同样的效忠宣誓)。国防军的标志是铁十字的一种已经在一战后期从1918年3月及4月开始被用作空军与坦克标志的简化版本(直臂的所谓Balkenkreuz或横梁十字)。1935年10月15日,德意志国防军的存在得到了纳粹德国官方的承认。

规模[编辑]

在1935–1945年间在德意志国防军服役的军人总数据信接近了18200000人。这个数字由历史学家Template:Ill提出,反映了曾服役于德意志国防军的人员总数,并在任意时刻德意志国防军的军事力量。

指挥结构[编辑]

法律上讲,在阿道夫·希特勒的国家元首任期内他担任德意志国防军总司令,他在1934年8月联邦大总统保罗·冯·兴登堡死后获得了该位置。在1938年的人事改组中,希特勒成为了德国武装部队最高指挥官并一直保有该职位直到他在1945年4月30日自杀。 Administration and military authority initially lay with the war ministry under Generalfeldmarschall Werner von Blomberg. After von Blomberg resigned in the course of the Blomberg-Fritsch Affair (1938), the ministry was dissolved and the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) under Generalfeldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel was put in its place. It was headquartered in Wünsdorf near Zossen, and a field echelon (Feldstaffel) was stationed wherever the Führer's headquarters were situated at a given time. Army work was also coordinated by the German General Staff, an institution that had been developing for more than a century and which had sought to institutionalize military perfection.

The OKW coordinated all military activities but Keitel's sway over the three branches of service (army, air-force, and navy) was rather limited. Each had its own High Command, known as Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH, army), Oberkommando der Marine (OKM, navy), and Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKL, air-force). Each of these high commands had its own general staff. In practice the OKW had operational authority over the Western Front whereas the Eastern Front was under the operational authority of the OKH.

Flag for the Commander-in-Chief of the German Armed Forces (1935–1938).
  • Supreme High Command of the Armed Forces (OKW)

(!) Promotion to field marshal was considered as something which is only done in wartime.

The OKW was also given the task of central economic planning and procurement, but the authority and influence of the OKW's war economy office (Wehrwirtschaftsamt) was challenged by the procurement offices (Waffenämter) of the single branches of service as well as by the Ministry for Armament and Munitions (Reichsministerium für Bewaffnung und Munition), into which it was merged after the ministry was taken over by Albert Speer in early 1942.

战时岁月[编辑]

德国陆军进一步推动第一次世界大战期间的战斗理念,将陆军(Heer)与空军(Luftwaffe)的优势整合为联合武装部队。结合了如包围与“歼灭战”的传统战争手段,德军在二战的第一年完成了许多闪电般的速战速决,使得外国新闻工作者为他们所目睹之景象创造出了一个新的名词:闪电战。德国陆军加入战争时仅有小部分完成了机械化改造:整场战争中步兵维持着90%的徒步率,而炮兵基本是用马拉。机械化部队在战争开端收到了世界新闻界的大量关注,被认为是入侵波兰(1939年9月)、挪威与丹麦(1940年4月)、比利时、法国与低地国家(1940年5月)、南斯拉夫与希腊(1941年4月)和苏联战役初期(1941年6月)胜利的原因。 在希特勒于1941年12月同美国宣战后,德国与其他轴心国成员发现自己卷入了同几个主要工业大国的战争而德国仍处在向战时经济的转型中。德国部队那时战线延伸过长,补给不足,战略上与人数上都处于劣势,在1941至1943年的莫斯科、列宁格勒、斯大林格勒战役,北非的突尼斯战役以及库尔斯克会战等一系列决定性战役中被击败。

德军奉行基于任务的指挥方式(而非基于命令的指挥方式),旨在给予指挥官以更大的自由来应对事件和利用机会。在公众舆论中,德军曾经,而且有时仍然被视为一只高科技军队。然而,现代装备,尽管多出现在宣传中,经常只能以相对小规模得到利用。这主要由于德国直到1942到1943年才开始运行战时经济。在东线只有40%到60%军队是机械化的,由于苏联糟糕的天气与交通状况,辎重列车经常依赖马拉拖车,由于同样的原因许多士兵靠步行或骑自行车(Radfahrtruppen)行军。

一些历史学家,如英国作家、前报纸编辑马克斯·哈斯廷斯,认为“......以人比人,德军无疑是二战中最好的战斗力量”,在《第二次世界大战:杂记阐述》一书中,安东尼·埃文斯写道:“德国士兵非常专业,训练有素,进攻凶悍且防守顽强。他们极富适应力,尤其在战争后期感受到装备短缺的年份”。然而,他们的正直被其战争罪行抹黑,尤其是在东线犯下的那些。在1941年的莫斯科、北非与斯大林格勒战役前他们战线过长、战略上居于劣势,从1942到1943年起,则在持续撤退。其他轴心国成员,尤其是匈牙利与罗马尼亚,同来自其他国家的志愿者与德军一同战斗。

二战中效力于德国陆军的志愿兵包括了德意志族人(没有出生在德国本土,但民族上属于德意志的人),荷兰人,比利时人,挪威人,瑞典人,芬兰人,捷克人和匈牙利人以及来自波罗的海诸国和巴尔干地区的人。俄国移民以及苏联的变节者组成了俄国解放军(Hilfswilliger)。来自苏联的非俄国人组成了东方军团(Ostlegionen)。这些部队都受恩斯特·奥古斯特三世的指挥,代表约5%的德国国防军陆军总司令部下属部队。

空军[编辑]


由赫尔曼戈林指挥的德国空军,是德国在战争初期的闪电战(波兰战役,1940年法国战役,1941年巴巴罗萨行动)中取胜的关键。德国空军的主要兵力集中在战斗机和战术轰炸机,例如梅塞施密特Bf109战斗机和Ju87斯图卡俯冲轰炸机。 飞机与地面部队的配合十分紧密。数量巨大的战斗机可以保障空中优势,而空军轰炸机会集中攻击敌人的指挥联络系统,补给线,仓库和前线支援设施。他们迅速赢得了战无不胜的美称,敌人和敌国人民的深感恐惧,当德国空军飞机到来时,他们都迅速逃跑。这导致了敌后阵线的疑虑和混乱,空军与闪电装甲师的配合似乎是战无不胜的,这使得闪电战更加卓有成效。 随着战争的继续进行,敌人的飞机产量越来高,质量也在提升。

地面作战的空军[编辑]

The Luftwaffe contributed many units of ground forces to the war in Russia as well as the Normandy front. In 1940, the Fallschirm-Jäger (paratroops) conquered the vital Belgian Fort Eben-Emael and took part in the airborne invasion of Norway, but after suffering heavy losses in the Battle of Crete, large scale airdrops were discontinued. Operating as crack infantry, the 1st Fallschirmjäger Division fought in all the theatres of the war. Notable actions include the bloody Monte Cassino, the last-ditch defence of Tunisia and numerous key battles on the eastern front. A Fallschirm-Jäger armored division—the Fallschirm-Panzer Division 1 Hermann Göring—was also formed and was heavily engaged in Sicily and at Salerno.

Separate from the elite Fallschirm-Jäger, the Luftwaffe also fielded regular infantry in the Luftwaffe Field Divisions. These units were basic infantry formations formed from Luftwaffe personnel. Due to a lack of competent officers and unhappiness by the recruits at having been forced into an infantry role, morale was low in these units. By Göring's personal order they were intended to be restricted to defensive duties in quieter sectors to free up front line troops for combat.

The Luftwaffe – being in charge of Germany's anti-aircraft defences – also used thousands of teenage Luftwaffenhelfer to support the Flak units.[1]

海军[编辑]

德意志国防军海军(德语:Kriegsmarine)在二战中扮演了重要角色,为德国,英国,和后来的苏联争夺大西洋的运输航线发挥了重要作用。在大西洋海战中,最初战绩十分突出的德国潜艇部队,后来由于盟军的诸如如声纳,雷达等技术创新,以及密码被破解最终被打败。而在1935年以前,因为国际条约的限制,德国海军的大型水面舰艇数量十分的少。袖珍战列舰格拉夫施佩上将号以及Scheer上将号只是在战争早起袭击运输船船的任务中显得十分重要。而德国海军没有任何一艘航空母舰,因为德国军方高层对齐柏林伯爵号失去了兴趣。随着俾斯麦号战列舰在1940年被击沉,加上德国海军剩余舰艇面临盟军的空中威胁,所有舰船被命令返回德国港口。并且在1940年占领的挪威峡湾截获从美国驶向苏联的货船。,在巴伦支海战役后,卡尔·邓尼茨元帅被任命为海军元帅,并让德国停止了所有大型舰船的建造,并且更加倾向于建造潜艇。

战区与战役[编辑]

File:German cavalry.jpg
German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Invasion of Poland of 1939.

The Wehrmacht directed combat operations during World War II (from 1 September 1939 – 8 May 1945) as the German Reich's Armed Forces umbrella command organization. After 1941 the OKH became the de facto Eastern Theatre higher echelon command organization for the Wehrmacht, excluding Waffen-SS except for operational and tactical combat purposes. The OKW conducted operations in the Western Theater.

For a time, the Axis Mediterranean Theater and the North African Campaign was conducted as a joint campaign with the Italian Army, and may be considered a separate theatre.

  • North African Campaign in Libya, Tunisia and Egypt between the UK and Commonwealth (and later, U.S.) forces and the Axis forces.
  • The Italian "Theater" (1943–45) was in fact a continuation of the Axis defeat in North Africa, and was a Campaign for defence of Italy.

The operations by the Kriegsmarine in the North and Mid-Atlantic can also be considered as separate theaters considering the size of the area of operations and their remoteness from other theaters.

东线战场[编辑]

苏联,1941年10月。

The Eastern Wehrmacht campaigns included:

  • Czechoslovakian campaign
  • Austrian Anschluss campaign
  • Battle of Poland campaign (Fall Weiss)—a joint invasion by Germany, the Soviet Union and Slovakia.
  • Balkans and Greece (Operation Marita)
  • Operation Barbarossa Campaign, also known as the Eastern Front, was the largest and most lethal campaign that the Wehrmacht Heer fought in during World War II. The Campaign against the Soviet Union was strategically the most crucial for Germany and its allies, because of the economic and political repercussions defeat of the Soviet Union would have had on the outcome of the war, including that of the conflict with the UK and the U.S. in the Western Theater. The Eastern Front demanded more resources than any other Theater throughout the war. The large area covered by the Eastern Front necessitated the division of the Theatre into four separate Strategic Directions overseen by the Army Group North, Army Group Centre, Army Group South, and the Army Norway. These commands would conduct their own interdependent strategic campaigns within the theater.
  • Battle of the Caucasus.
  • Part of the Eastern Front was anti-partisan operations against guerrilla units and counter-insurgency operations largely by Waffen-SS units on the occupied territories behind Axis front lines.

However, Hitler demanded that the Wehrmacht had to fight on other fronts, sometimes three simultaneously, thus stretching its resources too thin. By 1944, even the defence of Germany became impossible.

西线战场[编辑]

德国士兵行军穿过凯旋门
  • Phony War (Sitzkrieg).
  • The Denmark campaign as Operation Weserübung
  • The Norwegian Campaign.
  • The largest campaign in the Western Theatre involving combat was conducted against the Netherlands, Belgium, etc. and France (Fall Gelb) in 1940. This predominantly land campaign evolved into two subsequent campaigns, one by the Luftwaffe against the UK, and the other by the Kriegsmarine against the strategic supply routes linking the UK to the rest of the World.
  • The Western Front resumed in 1944 against the Allied forces with the Battle of Normandy.
  • The strategic air-campaigns the Luftwaffe won in 1939 and 1940 in Poland and France ended with the Battle of Britain. From 1941 to the end of 1943, the Luftwaffe entered a long and bloody air-battle with the Red Air-Force that affected its participation in the campaign against the RAF. Allied air-forces enjoyed aerial superiority on all three Theaters by the summer of 1944. In respect to the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe pursued its early goal of bombing the RAF airfields and fighting a war of attrition initially, but while doing so it struggled to inflict losses faster than the RAF could replace them. Luftwaffe itself was never able to replace their losses at anything close to their loss rate due to Germany unlike the UK not being on a war economy footing, even if Luftwaffe started the battle at a numerical advantage. Later, in response to a string of events beginning with a small-scale air-raid on Berlin by British bombers, Hitler ordered the Luftwaffe bomber forces to attack British cities. These reprisal attacks shifted the weight of the Luftwaffe away from the RAF and onto British civilians, allowing the RAF to rebuild its fighting strength and, within a few short months, turn the tide against the Luftwaffe in the skies above England.
  • The Battle of the Atlantic resulted in early Kriegsmarine successes that forced Winston Churchill to confide after the war that the only real threat he felt to Britain's survival was the "U-Boat peril".

伤亡[编辑]

Toila war cemetery in Estonia. There are 2,132 graves of German soldiers whose names are carved on these memorial stones.

More than 6,000,000 soldiers were wounded during the conflict, while more than 11,000,000 became prisoners. In all, approximately 5,533,000 soldiers from Germany and other nationalities fighting for the German armed forces—including the Waffen-SS—are estimated to have been killed in action, died of wounds, died in custody or gone missing in World War II. Included in this number are 215,000 Soviet citizens conscripted by Germany.[2]

According to Frank Biess,

German casualties took a sudden jump with the defeat of the Sixth Army at Stalingrad in January 1943, when 180,310 soldiers were killed in one month. Among the 5.3 million Wehrmacht casualties during the Second World War, more than 80 percent died during the last two years of the war. Approximately three-quarters of these losses occurred on the Eastern front (2.7 million) and during the final stages of the war between January and May 1945 (1.2 million).[3]

Jeffrey Herf wrote that:

Whereas German deaths between 1941 and 1943 on the western front had not exceeded 3 percent of the total from all fronts, in 1944 the figure jumped to about 14 percent. Yet even in the months following D-day, about 68.5 percent of all German battlefield deaths occurred on the eastern front, as a Soviet blitzkrieg in response devastated the retreating Wehrmacht.[4]

战争罪行[编辑]

A mass execution of 56 Polish hostages in Bochnia, near Kraków, following the invasion, December 18, 1939

在二战中,德意志国防军犯下了许多战争罪行[5] During World War II, the Wehrmacht perpetrated numerous war crimes. While the principal perpetrators of the civil suppression behind the front lines amongst German armed forces were the Nazi German "political" armies (the SS-Totenkopfverbände and particularly the Einsatzgruppen), the traditional armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht committed and ordered (e.g. the Commissar Order) war crimes of their own, particularly during the invasion of Poland in 1939[6] and later in the war against the Soviet Union. The Army's Chief of Staff General Franz Halder in a directive declared that in the event of guerrilla attacks, German troops were to impose "collective measures of force" by massacring entire villages.[7] Hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, of Soviet civilians died from starvation as the Germans requisitioned food for their armies and fodder for their draft horses.[8] According to Thomas Kühne, "An estimated 300,000–500,000 people were killed during the Wehrmacht's anti-partisan war in the Soviet Union."[9] While secretly listening to conversations of captured German generals, British officials became aware that the German army had taken part in the atrocities and mass killing of Jews and were guilty of war crimes.[10]

While the Wehrmacht's prisoner-of-war camps for inmates from the west generally satisfied the humanitarian requirement prescribed by international law, prisoners from Poland (which never capitulated) and the USSR were incarcerated under significantly worse conditions. Between the launching of Operation Barbarossa in the summer of 1941 and the following spring, 2.8 million of the 3.2 million Soviet prisoners taken died while in German hands.[11]

Sixteen blindfolded Partisan youth await execution by German forces in Serbia, 20 August 1941

The Nuremberg Trials of the major war criminals at the end of World War II found that the Wehrmacht was not an inherently criminal organization, but that it had committed crimes in the course of the war. Several high-ranked members of the Wehrmacht like Wilhelm Keitel and Alfred Jodl were convicted for their involvement in war crimes. Among German historians, the view that the Wehrmacht had participated in war time atrocities, particularly on the Eastern Front, grew in the late 1970s and the 1980s. In the 1990s, public conception in Germany was influenced by controversial reactions and debates about the exhibition of war crime issues.[12] More recently, the judgement of Nuremberg has come under question. The Israeli historian Omer Bartov, a leading expert on the Wehrmacht[13] wrote in 2003 that the Wehrmacht was a willing instrument of genocide, and that it is untrue that the Wehrmacht was an apolitical, professional fighting force that had only a few "bad apples".[14] Bartov argues that far from being the "untarnished shield", as successive German apologists stated after the war, the Wehrmacht was a criminal organization.[15] Likewise, the British historian Richard J. Evans, a leading expert on modern German history wrote that the Wehrmacht was a genocidal organization.[16] British historian Ian Kershaw concludes that the Wehrmacht's duty was to ensure the people who met Hitler's requirements of being part of the Aryan Herrenvolk ("Aryan master race") living space, he wrote that:

The Nazi revolution was broader than just the Holocaust. Its second goal was to eliminate Slavs from central and eastern Europe and to create a Lebensraum for Aryans. ... As Bartov (The Eastern Front; Hitler's Army) shows, it barbarised the German armies on the eastern front. Most of their three million men, from generals to ordinary soldiers, helped exterminate captured Slav soldiers and civilians. This was sometimes cold and deliberate murder of individuals (as with Jews), sometimes generalised brutality and neglect. ... German soldiers' letters and memoirs reveal their terrible reasoning: Slavs were 'the Asiatic-Bolshevik' horde, an inferior but threatening race. Only a minority of officers and men were Nazi members.[17]

对纳粹政权的抵抗[编辑]

Major General Henning von Tresckow.

From all groups of German Resistance, those within the Wehrmacht were the most condemned by the NSDAP[原創研究?]. There were several attempts by resistance members like Henning von Tresckow, Erich Hoepner or Friedrich Olbricht to assassinate Adolf Hitler as an ignition of a coup d'état. Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff and Axel Freiherr von dem Bussche-Streithorst even tried to do so by suicide bombing. Those and many other officers in the Heer and Kriegsmarine such as Erwin Rommel, Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg and Wilhelm Canaris opposed the atrocities of the Hitler regime[原創研究?]. Combined with Hitler's problematic military leadership, this also culminated in the famous 20 July plot (1944), when a group of German Army officers led by von Stauffenberg tried again to kill Hitler and overthrow his regime. Following this attempt, every officer who approached Hitler was searched from head to foot by his SS guards. As a special degradation,[原創研究?] all German military personnel were ordered to replace the standard military salute with the Hitler salute from this date on. To what extent the German military forces opposed or supported the Hitler regime is nevertheless highly disputed amongst historians up to the present day.

人道主义行动[编辑]

Some members of the Wehrmacht did save Jews and non-Jews from the concentration camps and/or mass-executions. Anton Schmid —a sergeant in the army— helped 250 Jewish men, women, and children escape from the Vilnius ghetto and provided them with forged passports so that they could get to safety. He was court-martialed and executed as a consequence. Albert Battel, a reserve officer stationed near the Przemysl ghetto, blocked an SS detachment from entering it. He then evacuated up to 100 Jews and their families to the barracks of the local military command, and placed them under his protection. Wilm Hosenfeld—an army captain in Warsaw—helped, hid, or rescued several Poles, including Jews, in occupied Poland. Most notably, he helped the Polish Jewish composer Władysław Szpilman, who was hiding among the city's ruins, by supplying him with food and water, and did not betray him to the Nazi authorities. Hosenfeld later died in a Soviet POW camp.

著名军官[编辑]

德意志国防军的著名军官包括:

阿道夫·希特勒与将军保卢斯冯·博克在波尔塔瓦,德国占领下的乌克兰,1942年6月

陆军元帅[编辑]

German Army Generalfeldmarschalls in order of promotion:

战后[编辑]

Following the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht, which went into effect on 8 May 1945, some Wehrmacht units remained active, either independently (e.g. in Norway), or under Allied command as police forces.[18] By the end of August 1945, these units were dissolved.

On September 20, 1945, with proclamation 2 of the Allied Control Council, "all German armed forces on land, on sea and in the air, the SS, SA, SD and Gestapo, with all their organizations, staffs and institution, including the general staff, the officer corps, the reserve corps, the military schools, veterans organizations, ..., are to be fully and finally disbanded in accordance with the methods and procedures as defined by the Allied representatives." After September 20 the allies began officially dismantling the various commands.[19]

A year later on 20 August 1946, the Allied Control Council declared the Wehrmacht as officially abolished (Kontrollratsgesetz No. 34). It specifically says: "Because of paragraph I of proclamation nr. 2 from September 20th, 1945, the Allied Control Council issues the following law:" - now it lists again the same institutions as above - but omits the SS, SA, SD and Gestapo and adds instead "The German war offices: Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW), Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH), Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) and Oberkommando der Kriegsmarine ... are hereby viewed as disbanded and fully liquidated and declared unlawful." Surprisingly the law says "are hereby viewed as disbanded and fully liquidated" and then it states that any attempt to violate the law will be prosecuted with up to the death penalty.

In the mid-1950s, tensions of the Cold War led to the creation of separate military forces in the Federal Republic of Germany and the socialist German Democratic Republic. The West German military, officially created on 5 May 1955, took the name Bundeswehr, meaning Federal Defence Forces, which pointed back to the old Reichswehr. Its East German counterpart—created on 1 March 1956—took the name National People's Army (Nationale Volksarmee). Both organizations employed many former Wehrmacht members, particularly in their formative years, though neither organization considered themselves to be successors to the Wehrmacht, and in the case of the Bundeswehr rejected the traditional grey of the Wehrmacht in order to show discontituity.

影集[编辑]

参见条目[编辑]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ One of whom was Josef Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI.
  2. ^ Rűdiger Overmans. Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg. Wikipedia. 2000335: . ISBN 3-486-56531-1. 
  3. ^ Frank Biess (2006). Homecomings: returning POWs and the legacies of defeat in postwar Germany. Princeton University Press. p.19. ISBN 0-691-12502-3.
  4. ^ Jeffrey Herf (2006). The Jewish enemy: Nazi propaganda during World War II and the Holocaust. Harvard University Press. p.252. ISBN 0-674-02175-4
  5. ^ David Baker. 'I liked to shoot everything - women, kids... it was kind of sport': Secret Nazi tapes reveal how ordinary German soldiers were responsible for war crimes and not just SS | Mail Online. Dailymail.co.uk. 2012-09-22 [2013-06-24]. 
  6. ^ Böhler, Jochen. Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg. Die Wehrmacht in Polen 1939. Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. 2006. ISBN 3-596-16307-2 (German). 
  7. ^ Förster, Jürgen "The Wehrmacht and the War of Extermination Against the Soviet Union", page 501
  8. ^ Geoffrey P. Megargee (2007). "War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941". Rowman & Littlefield. p.121. ISBN 0-7425-4482-6
  9. ^ Helmut Walser Smith (2011). "The Oxford Handbook of Modern German History". Oxford University Press. p.542. ISBN 0-19-923739-5
  10. ^ Cacciottolo, Mario. The Nazis prisoners bugged by Germans. BBC News. BBC. [18 January 2013]. 
  11. ^ Davies, Norman. Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory. London: Pan Books. 2006271: . ISBN 978-0-330-35212-3. 
  12. ^ Crimes of the German Wehrmacht (PDF). Hamburg Institute for Social Research. 2004 [2008-11-28]. 
  13. ^ Leitz, Christian "Editor's Introduction" pages 131–132 from "Army: Soldiers, Nazis and War in the Third Reich" by Omer Bartov; pages 129–150 from The Third Reich The Essential Readings edited by Christian Leitz, London: Blackwell, 1999
  14. ^ Bartov, Omer Germany's War and the Holocaust: Disputed Histories, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003 page xiii
  15. ^ Bartov, 1999 page 146.
  16. ^ Evans, Richard In Hitler's Shadow 1989 pages 58–60.
  17. ^ Ian Kershaw. Stalinism and Nazism: dictatorships in comparison. Cambridge University Press, 1997, p.150 ISBN 0-521-56521-9
  18. ^ Alexander Fischer: „Teheran – Jalta – Potsdam“, Die sowjetischen Protokolle von den Kriegskonferenzen der „Großen Drei“, mit Fußnoten aus den Aufzeichnungen des US Department of State, Köln 1968, S.322 und 324
  19. ^ Allied Control Council documents (PDF). [2013-06-24]. 

參考資料[编辑]

  • Bartov, Omer "Soldiers, Nazis and War in the Third Reich" pages 129–150 from The Third Reich: The Essential Readings by Christian Leitz, London: Blackwell, 1999, ISBN 0-631-20700-7.
  • Bartov, Omer Hitler’s Army: Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-506879-3.
  • Bartov, Omer The Eastern Front, 1941–45: German Troops and the Barbarisation of Warfare, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986, ISBN 0-312-22486-9.
  • Bergen, Doris "'Germany Is Our Mission: Christ Is Our Strength!' The Wehrmacht Chaplaincy and the 'German Christian' Movement" pages 522–536 from Church History, Volume 66, Issue #, September 1997.
  • Bergen, Doris "Between God and Hitler: German Military Chaplains and the Crimes of the Third Reich" pages 123–138 from In God's Name: Genocide and Religion in the Twentieth Century edited by Omer Bartov and Phyllis Mack, New York: Berghahn Books, 2001, ISBN 1571813020.
  • Böhler, Jochen. Auftakt zum Vernichtungskrieg. Die Wehrmacht in Polen 1939. Frankfurt: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. 2006. ISBN 3-596-16307-2 (German). 
  • Davies, W. German Army Handbook, 1973, Ian Allen Ltd., Shepperton, Surrey, ISBN 0-7110-0290-8
  • Evans, Anthony A., World War II: An Illustrated Miscellany, 2005, Worth Press, ISBN 1-84567-681-5
  • Evans, Richard J. In Hitler's Shadow West German Historians and the Attempt to Escape the Nazi Past. New York: Pantheon, 1989, ISBN 0-394-57686-1.
  • Fest, Joachim; Plotting Hitler's Death—The Story of the German Resistance, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1996. ISBN 0-8050-4213-X
  • Förster, Jürgen "The Wehrmacht and the War of Extermination Against the Soviet Union" pages 494–520 from The Nazi Holocaust Part 3 The "Final Solution": The Implementation of Mass Murder Volume 2 edited by Michael Marrus, Westpoint: Meckler Press, 1989 ISBN 0-88736-255-9.
  • Förster, Jürgen "Complicity or Entanglement? The Wehrmact, the War and the Holocaust" pages 266–283 from The Holocaust and History The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed and the Reexamiend edited by Michael Berenbaum & Abraham Peck, Bloomington: Indian University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-253-33374-1.
  • Förster, Jürgen "The German Military’s Image of Russia" pages 117–129 from Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy edited by Ljubica & Mark Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004 ISBN 978-0-297-84913-1.
  • Geyer, Michael ”Etudes in Political History: Reichswehr, NSDAP and the Seizure of Power” pages 101–123 from The Nazi Machtergreifung edited by Peter Stachura, London: Allen & Unwin, 1983, ISBN 0-04-943026-2.\
  • Geyer, Michael "Professionals and Junkers: German Rearmament and Politics in the Weimar Republic" pages 77–133 from Social Change and Political Development in Weimar Germany edited by Richard Bessel & Edgar Feuchtwanger, London: Croom Helm, 1981, ISBN 0-389-20176-6.
  • Goda, Norman "Black Marks: Hitler's Bribery of his Senior Officers During World War II" pages 413–452 from The Journal of Modern History, Volume 72, Issue # 2, June 2000; reprinted pages 96–137 in Corrupt Histories edited by Emmanuel Kreike and William Chester Jordan, Toronto: Hushion House, 2005, ISBN 1-58046-173-5.
  • Hastings, Max, Overlord: D-Day and the Battle for Normandy 1944, 1985, reissued 1999, Pan, ISBN 0-330-39012-0
  • Hastings, Max Armageddon: The Battle for Germany 1945, 2004, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-90836-8
  • Heer, Hannes & Naumann, Klaus (editors) War of Extermination: the German Military in World War II, 1941–1944, New York: Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-57181-493-0.
  • Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. 2008. ISBN 0-393-06757-2. 
  • Kitterman, David "The Justice of the Wehrmacht Legal System: Servant or Opponent of National Socialism?" pages 450–469 from Central European History, Volume 24, Issue #4, 1991.
  • Lubbeck, William; Hurt, David B. At Leningrad's Gates: The Story of a Soldier with Army Group North. Philadelphia, PA: Casemate, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-932033-55-6).
  • Geoffrey P. Megargee, War of Annihilation. Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941, 2006, Rowman & Littelefield, ISBN 0-7425-4481
  • Megargee, Geoffrey, Inside Hitler's High Command, 2000, University Press of Kansas, ISBN 978-0-7006-1187-4
  • Messerschmidt, Manfred "The Wehrmacht and the Volksgemeinschaft" pages 719–744 from Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 18, Issue # 4, October 1983.
  • Müller, Klaus-Jürgen The Army, Politics and Society in Germany 1933–1945: Studies in the Army’s Relation to Nazism, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987, ISBN 0-7190-1071-3
  • O’Neill, Robert The German Army and the Nazi Party, 1933–39, London: Corgi, 1966, ISBN 0-552-07910-3.
  • Schulte, Theo The German Army and Nazi Policies in Occupied Russia, Oxford: Berg, 1989, ISBN 0-85496-160-7.
  • Shepard, Ben War in the Wild East: the German Army and Soviet Partisans, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-674-01296-8.
  • Smelser, Ronald & Davies, Edward The Myth of the Eastern Front: the Nazi-Soviet War in American Popular Culture, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-83365-3
  • Former Waffen-SS soldiers, Wenn alle Brueder schweigen (When All Our Brothers Are Silent), Munin Verlag GmbH, Osnabrueck, 3rd revised edition 1981, ISBN 3-921242-21-5
  • Wallach, Jehuda The Dogma of the Battle Of Annihilation: The Theories of Clausewitz and Schlieffen and Their Impact On the German Conduct of Two World Wars, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1986, ISBN 0-313-24438-3.
  • Wette, Wolfram The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-674-02213-3.
  • .Wheeler-Bennett, John The Nemesis of Power The German Army in Politics 1918–1945, London: Macmillan, 1967, ISBN 1-4039-1812-0.
  • U.S. National Archives, Captured German Records Microfilmed at Alexandria, Virginia, Microfilm publications T-77 and T-78, 2,680 rolls
  • U.S. War Department, Handbook on German Military Forces, 15 March 1945, Technical Manual TM-E 30-451

外部連結[编辑]

kamouflage.net > global search: Europe > Germany (German Reich) > index – examples of, and information about, camouflage uniforms used by the Wehrmacht Heer, Wehrmacht Luftwaffe and Waffen-SS during the Second World War

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