无教派穆斯林

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无教派穆斯林[1]是指不属于一个明确伊斯兰教派的穆斯林。[2]无教派穆斯林可以指向《古兰经》仪姆兰的家属英语Al Imran第103节来捍卫这一立场,即要求穆斯林保持团结不要分离。[3]在各种调查中,当问及其属于哪个教派时,这些穆斯林通常会自我认定为“只是一个穆斯林”。[4][5]在获得明确的解释之前,这些穆斯林会自己对教义(包括经文和圣训)进行推理判断英语Qiyas或考虑大多数伊斯兰学者的意见。在英语中,这种意识形态的穆斯林还有一个Just Muslim的称呼。[6][7][8][9][10]

概述[编辑]


人口统计[编辑]

在至少22个国家中至少五分之一的穆斯林为无教派穆斯林。根据皮尤研究中心的宗教信仰与公共生活项目,有着最多无教派穆斯林人口的国家是哈萨克斯坦,占比达到74%。报告还指出,在9个国家的穆斯林人口中,无教派穆斯林占多数(在另外3个国家占相对多数):阿尔巴尼亚 (65%)、吉尔吉斯斯坦 (64%)、科索沃 (58%)、印度尼西亚 (56%)、马里 (55%)、波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那 (54%)、乌兹别克斯坦 (54%)、阿塞拜疆 (45%)、俄罗斯 (45%)和尼日利亚 (42%)。其它占比较高的国家是:喀麦隆 (40%), 突尼斯(40%),几内亚比绍(36%),乌干达(33%),摩洛哥(30%),塞内加尔(27%),查德(23%),埃塞俄比亚(23%),利比里亚(22%),尼日尔(20%)和坦桑尼亚(20%)。[4]不过,这些数字可能会产生误导,应采取谨慎态度,因为其中大部分国家都有一个占主导地位的伊斯兰教派,如逊尼派和什叶派,还有一些缺乏竞争力的教派。这些国家的大部分穆斯林选择只认同自己是穆斯林,而不是自称属于一个特定的教派。

代表人物[编辑]

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Ngaima, Samuel. Factors to the Liberian National Conflict: Views of the Liberian Expatriates. 2014: 17. 
  2. ^ Benakis, Theodoros. Islamophoobia in Europe!. New Europe (Brussels). 13 January 2014 [20 October 2015]. ... the non-denominational Muslims – those who are neither Shiites nor Sounites, but who accept Islam as a religion generally. 
  3. ^ Intra-Societal Tension and National Integration, p 119, A. Jamil Qadri - 1988
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation. The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. August 9, 2012 [4 September 2013]. 
  5. ^ Burns, Robert. Christianity, Islam, and the West. : 55. 40 per cent called themselves "just a Muslim" according to the Council of American-Islamic relations 
  6. ^ Mustapha, Abdul. Sects & Social Disorder. 2014: 5. of Muslims identified themselves as Sunni, 12 per cent as Shi'a, 3 per cent as Ahmadiyya but 44 per cent as 'just Muslim' (Pew Forum, 2010) 
  7. ^ Muttitt, Greg. Fuel on the Fire: Oil and Politics in Occupied Iraq. 2012: 79. A January 2004 survey by the Iraq Centre for Research and Strategic Studies, for instance, asked people which description suited them best Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim or just Muslim'. 
  8. ^ Boulting, Ned. On the Road Bike: The Search For a Nation’s Cycling Soul. : 155. What is your religion, asked a UN official. Muslim. Are you Shi'a or Sunni. Just Muslim 
  9. ^ Tatari, Eren. Muslims in British Local Government: Representing Minority Interests in Hackney, Newham and Tower Hamlets. 2014: 111. Nineteen said that they are Sunni Muslims, six said they are just Muslim without specifying a sect, two said they are Ahmadi, and two said their families are Alevi 
  10. ^ Lopez, Ralph. Truth in the Age of Bushism. 2008: 65. Many Iraqis take offense at reporters' efforts to identify them as Sunni or Shiite. A 2004 Iraq Centre for Research and Strategic Studies poll found the largest category of Iraqis classified themselves as "just Muslim." 
  11. ^ Cughtai, Muhammad Ikram. Jamāl Al-Dīn Al-Afghāni: An Apostle of Islamic Resurgence. 2005: 454. Condemning the historically prevailing trend of blindly imitating religious leaders, al- Afghani revised to identity himself with a specific sect or imam by insisting that he was just a Muslim and a scholar with his own interpretation of Islam.