葛哈·李希特

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
葛哈·李希特
Gerhard richter 02 2005 düsseldorf.jpg
葛哈·李希特,攝影於 2005年
艺术家
出生 (1932-02-09) 1932年2月9日(85歲)
Template:German德累斯顿, Weimar Republic
国籍 Template:German
教育程度 德累斯頓美術學院, 杜塞爾多夫藝術學院
知名于 繪畫裝置藝術
运动 Capitalist realism
葛哈·李希特
艺术家

葛哈·李希特 (德语:[ˈʀɪçtɐ];出生於1932年2月9日)是一位德国视觉艺术家. 作品形式包含抽象藝術照相寫實主義繪畫、攝影及利用玻璃媒材等。 他的在藝術概念上追隨毕加索和讓·阿爾普(Jean Arp)等人,創作形式多樣而並非維持單一風格。

在2012年十月,李希特的一幅作品Abstraktes Bild 在拍賣會以3,400萬美元拍出,創下在世藝術家拍賣的最高價紀錄。[1] 2013年5月,另一件1986年名為Domplatz, Mailand (教堂广场,米兰)的作品以3,710萬美元於紐約拍出。[2] 2015年2月Abstraktes Bild再度以4,452萬美元於倫敦蘇富比當代晚間拍賣中售出,頻頻打破自身紀錄。[3]

個人生活[编辑]

童年與教育[编辑]

李希特出生於[4]德累斯顿, 萨克森州,並在Lower Silesia的Reichenau(現在於波蘭博加蒂尼亞地區)及瓦爾特斯多夫,在上勞濟茨的農村成長,上勞濟茨是父親擔任教職的村莊。李希特的母親生下他的時候正值25歲。 李希特的爺爺曾被認為有天份的鋼琴家,不過之後經營家族釀酒事業,最終破產並舉家遷至德累斯顿。李希特的母親在德累斯顿受訓成為書商,實踐了她對文學及音樂的熱愛。李希特的父親當時為數學及物理系學生,父母於1931年結婚。[5]

父親為了能在國家社會主義制度中安穩生活,在賴歇瑙(Reichenau)尋得一份教職,李希特的妹妹也在1936年11月於當地出生。因居住於鄉間,李希特的父母一開始還能免於政治的壓迫,並未參加聚會集會或是成為狂熱的納粹主義支持者。[6] ,不過身為一名教師,父親最終還是加入了國家社會黨。 1942年李希特被徵召入德意志少年團,不過直至戰爭結束,他因年紀太輕並未成為希特勒青年團的正式成員。[7] 1943年,母親舉家搬到了瓦爾特斯多夫,並因生活所迫賣掉鋼琴。[8] 李希特在10年級後離開學校,先在廣告和舞台設置擔任學徒,之後才進入德累斯顿美術學院就讀。 在1948年,李希特完成了高等職業學校的學業後,1949年至1951年間,曾擔任一位專業畫家的學徒。[9] 1950年李希特於德累斯顿美術學院入學申請因“過於資產階級”理由被拒。 直至1951年才終於在德累斯頓美術學院開始他的學業。成為阿潘(Karl von Appen)、亨氏·洛馬爾(Heinz Lohmar)和威爾·葛羅曼(Will Grohmann)的學生。

婚姻[编辑]

李希特在1957年與第一任妻子欧芬格尔(Marianne Eufinger)結婚; 生了第一個女兒。1982年再婚,第二任妻子爲雕塑家伊萨·根泽肯(Isa Genzken)。於1995年與第三任妻子薩賓·莫里茨(Sabine Moritz)再婚,並育有一個兒子和女兒。 

早期職業生涯[编辑]

在他的職業生涯的早期,李希特因應畢業文憑B.A.(Bachelor of Arts)的要求為學院的廳堂製作了一幅壁畫 與畢卡索的聖餐 (1955)。另一幅壁畫 生命之樂 則繪於德國德國衛生博物館(German Hygiene Museum),以壁紙或掛毯的方式呈現。[10]

Gerhard Richter c. 1970, photograph by Lothar Wolleh

這兩件作品是在1961年李希特從東德逃往西德後所繪製,就在柏林圍牆築起前的2個月,兩件作品充滿意識形態。在兩德統一之後,於德國衛生博物館牆上的 生命之樂 (1956)後來因該建築重建,已不復見。1957年至1961年,李希特在學院中修習碩士,並接受當時的東德的委託創作。在這段時間裡,李希特密集地創作包括壁畫Arbeiterkampf (Workers' struggle),油畫(如東德女演員安潔麗卡·多姆羅斯Angelica Domröse和李希特的第一任妻子小名為Ema的肖像),也不少肖像畫及德累斯頓的全景風景畫Stadtbild (Townscape, 1956)。

當他逃往西德後,李希特與藝術家西格馬·波爾克(Sigmar Polke),哈·舒尔特(HA Schult) 库诺·龚休尔(Kuno Gonschior),漢斯·艾哈德瓦爾特(Hans Erhard Walther),卢埃格(Konrad Lueg),歌德哈特·高伯勒(Gotthard Graubner), 卡爾·奧托·格茨(Karl Otto Götz)一起於杜塞爾多夫藝術學院(Kunstakademie Düsseldorf )學習。與波爾克和菲舍爾(Konrad Fischer)相處時,以獨創的詞彙現實主義(Kapitalistischer)亦稱為資本現實主義,作為一種反藝術風格,像是廣告那樣簡化挪用詞彙,不但提及了蘇聯官方崇尚的社會主義寫實風格( Socialist Realism),同時批評西方資本主義傾向消費者的藝術。

李希特在漢堡的漢堡學院和新斯科舍藝術設計學院擔任客座教授; 並於1971年回到杜塞爾多夫藝術學院擔任教授超過15年。

1983年李希特從杜塞爾多夫搬到科隆,至今仍生活及工作於科隆,[11] 並於1996年搬進了由建築師Thiess Marwede所設計的工作室。[12]

藝術[编辑]

幾乎所有李希特的作品,都藉著繪畫動作和媒材的相互擾動而成,呈現出虛幻的空間。對李希特來說,現實是一連串新嘗試的組合,需要去被理解、去被 重現 ;就像他,去 畫下圍繞在身邊現實的世界。李希特對自己的創作以及藝術市場和各種藝術運動的觀點和看法,可從其寫作和採訪紀錄當中得知,按照紀錄的時間順序,以下引言摘錄[13]

  • "I am a Surrealist."[14]
  • "My sole concern is the object. Otherwise I would not take so much trouble over my choice of subjects; otherwise I would not paint at all."[15]
  • "My concern is never art, but always what art can be used for."[16]

照片繪畫及模糊[编辑]

Poster for a Richter exhibition in Berlin 2011, showing his painting Betty

李希特在1960年代及1970年代初期利用黑白照片創作了各種繪畫,包含報紙和書籍等不同來源,藉著作品標題可窺見其內容(如Helga Matura, 1966); 私人快照; 城市和山的鳥瞰圖,馬德里都市風景(1968)和阿爾卑斯山(1968); 海景(1969-70); 以及1972年威尼斯雙年展的德國館所展出的大型多組件作品。而在他的作品 四十八件肖像 (1971–2)當中則是選擇以作曲家的臉孔組合而成,如古斯塔夫·馬勒(Gustav Mahler)和讓·西貝柳斯(Jean Sibelius),以及作家如H·G·威爾斯(H. G. Wells)和弗蘭茨·卡夫卡(Franz Kafka)[17]

From his "Writings", the following refer to quotations regarding photography, its relationship with painting, and the "blur":

  • "The photograph is the most perfect picture. It does not change; it is absolute, and therefore autonomous, unconditional, devoid of style. Both in its ways of informing, and in what it informs of, it is my source."[18]
  • "I don't create blurs. Blurring is not the most important thing; nor is it an identity tag for my pictures. When I dissolve demarcations and create, this is not in order to destroy the representation, or to make it more artistic or less precise. The flowing transitions, the smooth equalizing surface, clarify the content and make the representation credible (an "alla prima" impasto would be too reminiscent of painting, and would destroy the illusion)."
  • "I blur things to make everything equally important and equally unimportant. I blur things so that they do not look artistic or craftsmanlike but technological, smooth and perfect. I blur things to make all the parts a closer fit. Perhaps I also blur out the excess of unimportant information."

李希特的繪畫作品完成前有不少步驟。從找到或拍下的一張攝影照片開始,從當中取材所要的色調,在畫布上描繪出景物,逐步修飾到完成,時而加上柔軟的刷子輕觸、時而以刮刀塗抹,製造出獨有的“模糊”效果。

從1964年左右開始,李希特畫了不少幅肖像作品,對象包含畫廊老闆、收藏家、藝術家和熟識的朋友圈。分別於1977 年及1988年為女兒所繪下兩件肖像作品Betty、1993年三幅名為IG作品則是第二任妻子伊萨·根泽肯(Isa Genzken)的肖像畫。曾刊登於雜誌內頁的作品Lesende(1994)則是畫下隔年與他結婚的第三任妻子薩賓·莫里茨(Sabine Moritz)。[19] 李希特也曾為納粹黨成員及其受害者家屬畫下肖像,用寫實的方式記錄國家社會主義的歷史。[20] 1966年開始,李希特將他所拍攝的或他人給予的照片作為肖像的基礎。 在1975年杜塞爾多夫的一次展覽契機,知名藝術家組合吉爾伯特和喬治(Gilbert & George)也曾委託李希特繪製肖像。[21]

李希特於1965年開始直到1974年前期,活躍地以版畫媒材創作,估計李希特大多數的版畫(超過100件)都創作於1965-74年間,有著相似的內容及主題。[22] 他探索了各式各樣的版畫印刷方式—絹印印刷(screenprint),光刻(photolithography)和膠印(collotype),用並非昂貴的媒材,賦予他的作品 “非藝術”的表現。[23] 不過從1974年開始,創作的版畫數量逐漸減少,轉而從拍攝的照片上繪畫。

風景畫曾出現在1963年李希特早期的創作,之後1968年,利用一次假期遊覽科西嘉島的機會,李希特畫下一系列風景畫,記錄當地景致。[24] 之後,風景畫在李希特的創作當中成為較獨立的系列。[25] 根據迪特馬·艾格(Dietmar Elger)的敘述,李希特的風景畫可在傳統德國浪漫繪畫下被理解。作品曾拿來與卡斯帕·大衛·弗里德里希(Caspar David Friedrich, 1774-1840)的作品比較,兩位藝術家的共同點是都成長於德累斯頓。[26] Große Teyde-Landschaft (1971) 就是取材度假時拍攝的特內里費島火山區(Tenerife)照片。[27]

作品 Atlas 首次展出於1972年在Utrecht的現代藝術館,題為 Atlas der FotosSkizzen ,作品包括315個部分。作品不斷擴充、改變形式,並於1989年在慕尼黑的倫巴赫美術館(Lenbachhaus)、1990年在科隆的路德維希博物館(Museum Ludwig)和1995年在紐約的迪亞藝術基金會(Dia Art Foundation)中完整展出。作品 Atlas 包含4,000件攝影、重新編輯過的照片及插畫,固定在約莫600個板子上,以百科全書式的方式展覽。  [28]

1972年,李希特前往格林蘭旅行十天,原定計畫是與朋友漢娜·達爾伯文(Hanne Darboven)同行,不過後來選擇獨自前往。旅行中記錄了荒涼的北極景觀,可從於1976年製作的四幅以 海景 為名的大型創作當中,窺見格陵蘭的景致。  [29]

在1982年和1983年間,李希特做了一系列的蠟燭和骷髏的繪畫,與虛空靜物畫等傳統題材有關。受喬治·德·拉·圖爾(Georges de La Tour)和法蘭西斯科·德·祖巴蘭(Francisco de Zurbarán)等藝術家影響,李希特先在自己的工作室拍攝靜物照,安排桌面上蠟燭和頭骨的位置,和不同的自然光,再繪畫下來。蠟燭畫與首批大型抽象繪畫,與當時繽紛俏皮卻了無意義的藝術作品,反差極大,此類型靜物作品總計約有27件。[30]1995年,德累斯頓舉辦第二次世界大戰期間遭受盟軍轟炸50週年紀念,就將李希特的蠟燭畫作品被放大展出於易北河旁,俯瞰整個城市作為復興的象徵。[31]

在1988年的系列 1977年10月18日 爲15件模糊的照片繪畫組合而成,利用黑白報紙和警察所攝影的照片作為素材,繪下德國左翼恐怖組織红军派Faction(RAF)的四個成員。敘述1977年10月18日當天3名成員在監獄牢房內死亡,所引起的巨大爭議。[32]1980年代後期,李希特就開始收集這個組織的圖片,並在1989年於克雷費爾德(Krefeld)第一次展出這15件畫作,利用激進記者烏爾里克·邁因霍夫(Ulrike Meinhof )的照片、霍格·麥斯(Holger Meins)被捕的照片、由警方拍下服刑中的古德倫·安司林(Gudrun Ensslin)照片、安德烈亞斯·巴德(Andreas Baader)藏槍用的書架及唱片機的照片,邁因霍夫、安司林和巴德的死亡照片以及拉斯佩(Jan-Carl Raspe)等人的葬禮照片作為素材。

李希特於2001年9月11日飛往紐約時剛好遇到九一一袭击事件,班機轉降至哈利法克斯新斯科舍。幾年後,他製作了一幅關於飛機墜入世界貿易中心的小件作品。[33] 2005年李希特創作了名為 September 的作品,該作品被藝術術史作家羅伯特·斯托爾(Robert Storr)敘述為一個反意識形態的代表,他認為9月11日攻擊當時無處不在的新聞照片,影響了人對該事件的獨有記憶,並與作品 1977年10月18日 作為比較。[34]

在2000年,李希特做了一系列作品用科學現象去處理的作品。2003年,他製作了幾幅同名作品 矽酸鹽 。在大型的畫布上,畫下格狀的淺灰和深灰色斑點,其形狀固定、排列整齊,每件角度稍微不同,彼此呼應。類似發表於法蘭克福雜誌(Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung)的照片,電腦模擬昆蟲殼中的二氧化矽反射的圖像。 [35]

抽象作品[编辑]

李希特的 Table(1962),用漩渦形狀的灰色覆蓋在慣用的照片寫實的繪畫上[36] 1969年,李希特製作了首批灰色單色畫,不過其紋理及繪畫方式各有所不同。 

1976年,名為 Abstract Painting 是藝術家用新的創作方式“讓繪畫自行演變,並非被創作出來”,也因此難以用文字來解釋和命名。在這個系列,李希特一開始是在畫布上刷上大片的原色,然後再堆疊出許多層次。[37]繪畫在創作過程中不斷地演變,也保留不經意出現的細節及樣式。李希特也利用相同繪畫技巧,抹除和刮除來顯露不同層次紋理及模糊的效果。[38]

從1980年代中期開始,李希特使用一種自製的橡皮刮板來抹除和摩擦他在畫布上的大片油彩。 於1986年李希特在接受本傑明·布赫勞(Benjamin H.D. Buchloch)的訪問時,被問及他的“灰色單色系列和抽象系列”,以及他們與藝術家伊夫·克萊因(Yves Klein)和埃爾斯沃思·凱利(Ellsworth Kelly)的關係。Richter的回覆:

灰色單色系列是在單色畫無處不在的時候。儘管如此,我還是畫了,不只是凱利,還有鮑勃·萊曼(Bob Ryman),布萊斯·馬登(Brice Marden),艾倫·查爾頓(Alan Charlton),伊夫·克萊因(Yves Klein)和許多其他人。[39]

作品Firenze在1999年秋季開始,為期一年多的時間,99件作品成為一個聯繫的週期。該系列由幾張佛羅倫斯的城市攝影,利用繪畫與重複塗抹而成,並對拿來向 Steve Reich和佛羅倫斯的音樂團體致敬。[40]

2000年以後,李希特利用一些作品來探討科學現象,特別是不能由肉眼可見的作品。[41] 2006年名為Cage的六組件作品,則是以美國前衛作曲家約翰·凱吉的姓作為作品名稱。[42] 2002年5月,李希特拍攝了他1987年所創作名為648-2抽象繪畫的216處細節。在長桌上工作了好幾個星期,李希特把這些10×15公分的細節配合165份關於伊拉克戰爭的文本,在於2004年3月20日和21日於Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung上出版。這項工作於2004年出版,名為戰爭之

2008年11月,李希特開始了一個新的系列,先將墨水滴在濕紙上,再利用酒精和漆料延長和延緩墨水的自然暈染和變化。該系列的作品November被認為與他以前水彩畫有顯著地不同,因為浸泡的關係,油墨滲透到另外一面,有雙面作品的效果。有時候,上層的圖案滲入其他紙張圖案,產生有連續性圖案的效果。[43] 有些作品,李希特甚至在紙張的一面塗上漆,或在用鉛筆跨越不同顏色加上線條。[44]

色卡繪畫[编辑]

早在1966年,李希特已開始彩色圖表繪畫系列,使用矩形色塊作為物件,無止境地選擇不同色調,延伸成大型作品; 這系列在1973至1974年達到一個高峰,如作品 256色 [45] 李希特在1966年到1974年間共繪製了三個彩色圖表繪畫系列,每個系列愈加有野心地安排更多顏色組合。最早的研究是從1966年開始,先用尺寸較小顏色也較少的排列,名為 10色[46] 李希特試圖用這種方式,將色彩從傳統、描述、符號、表現用途掙脫出來,也因此彩色圖表繪畫系列有種匿名的、不帶感情的特色。當他做這些畫的同時,李希特會讓他的朋友布萊克巴勒莫(Blinky Palermo )隨機地叫出顏色,並使用該顏色於作品當中。


1970年代的色彩圖表系列,李希特將他的焦點從現成的系統轉向概念的系統,發展成用數學程序來混合顏色及安排位置。[47] 所用的顏色範圍及量,用數學方式決定。然後將每種顏色隨機排列以產生所得的組合物和油漆的形式。李希特從1971年開始第二個系列,只有五件作品。在1973年和1974年期間專注於最後一個色彩圖表,加入了淺灰色、深灰色和之後的綠色,以混合的形式添加。


李希特的 4900顏色 從2007年明亮的單色正方形,轉變成隨機排列的網格,創造出令人驚嘆的萬花筒效果。同時進行的,還有科隆主教座堂的南面窗戶設計。 4900顏色包括25種顏色及196種版型,可以組合達11種變化–可從表面延伸色塊,或多種小色塊組合。李希特也為蛇形畫廊另外發展了 Version II  - 49幅每件尺寸為97乘97公分的繪畫作品。[48]

雕塑[编辑]

李希特從1967年左右開始使用玻璃來創作,當時製作了Four Panes of Glass作品 。[49] 將玻璃板以傾斜的方式安裝,用不同角度串連一個緊接著一個的裝置。 1970年,他和Blinky Palermo一起為1972年夏季奥林匹克运动会體育設施設計提案。在運動場的前方,他們提出了一系列27種不同顏色的玻璃窗;每種顏色隨機式地分佈並重複出現五十次。 1981年,在杜塞爾多夫格奥尔格·巴泽利茨的聯展中,李希特製作了第一個巨大的透明鏡子,並在他之後的作品中間歇地出現;鏡子尺寸明顯大於繪畫並利用鋼骨來調整及固定。對於諸如 Mirror Painting(灰,735-2)(1991)的鏡子,則是將玻璃背面加工成為灰色玻璃。[50] 在1992年在第九屆卡塞尔文献展上,李希特則是與建築師保羅·羅布布雷特(Paul Robbrecht)合作,於該展館空間設計展出畫作和彩色鏡面玻璃。[51]

2002年,則是為迪亞藝術基金會(Dia Art Foundation)製作一個玻璃雕塑,利用七個平行的玻璃,折射光和周遭的空間,讓該展出空間表現出多樣的視覺面貌;Spiegel ISpiegel II,則是從1989年尺寸為7英尺長和18英尺長的兩塊鏡面來組合,改變了環境的邊界以及畫廊的觀看經驗;而1992年的作品 Kugel,是以球面不銹鋼作為鏡子,同時與空間相互照映。[52]從2002年開始,則利用三維玻璃結構,製作了一系列如 66 Standing Glass Panels(2002/2011)的作品。[53]

素描[编辑]

2010年美國紐約繪畫中心(the Drawing Center)舉辦了 不存在的線條(Lines which do not exist)展覽,將李希特1966年至2005年的素描做一個整理及調查,包括使用機械干預方式製作的創作,例如將鉛筆連結到電鑽。 這也是自2002年於現代藝術博物館的展覽 40 Years of Painting 之後,李希特第一次於美國有較完整的回顧。[54]不存在的線條 的展覽評論當中,RH Lossi提及:“作為一個個人的(可能是專業的)缺陷,李希特的繪畫實踐包括記錄下不成功的-...李希特用他個人的、搖晃的、失敗的及物質的物件等證據,取代了藝術家雙手創作的概念。“[55]

委託[编辑]

在他的整個職業生涯中,李希特拒絕了不少交易和豐厚私人佣金的機會。一件9×9½英尺的大型作品,描繪了米兰主教座堂和19世紀的埃马努埃莱二世拱廊街,命名為 米蘭大教堂廣場(1968年),此作品就是西門子公司所委託所繪畫的,它從1968年到1998年掛在該公司位於米蘭的辦公室。此件作品在1998年在倫敦蘇富比拍出高達360萬美元的高價。[56]1980年,李希特和伊薩·根澤肯被委託設計杜伊斯堡的König-Heinrich-Platz地鐵站;並在1992年完成施工。1986年,李希特也為杜塞爾多夫的維多麗亞保險公司製作了兩件大型作品 Victoria IVictoria II[57] 1990年,他與 索爾·勒維特Sol LeWitt) 和Oswald Mathias Ungers一起為杜塞爾多夫的巴伐利亞抵押及本票銀行(Bayerische Hypotheken- und Wechselbank)創作作品。1998年,李希特為柏林德國國會大廈的整修,利用德国国旗的顏色來做設計。

科隆大教堂[编辑]

File:Richter window Cologne Cathedral.jpg
Stained glass window in the Cologne Cathedral, 20米(66英尺) tall

2002年,在他的MoMA回顧展的同一年,李希特受委託設計 科隆主教座堂 設計彩色花窗玻璃。2007年8月正式揭幕完成後的彩色玻璃窗。它是利由抽象拼貼的方式,約11,500個像素般的正方形玻璃,一共72種顏色,對稱地、隨機地排列於113平方米(1,220平方英尺)的窗型大小,讓人聯想到1974年的作品 4096色 。雖然藝術家並未收取費用,不過光是材料和製作的費用就高達37萬歐元(506,000美元)。這些費用透過募款由1,000多人的捐款支付。[58] 當時主教Joachim Meisner沒有參加彩色玻璃窗的正式揭幕;表示他較偏好具象地呈現基督徒烈士的方式,並說李希特的設計更適合出現在清真寺或其他禱告殿。[59][60][61] 雖然藝術家自稱為無神論者或“偏天主教徒”,不過李希特的三個孩子與他第三任妻子後來都在科隆大教堂受洗。[62]

展覽[编辑]

Richter first began exhibiting in Düsseldorf in 1963. Richter had his first gallery solo show in 1964 at Galerie Schmela in Düsseldorf. Soon after, he had exhibitions in Munich and Berlin and by the early 1970s exhibited frequently throughout Europe and the United States. In 1966, Bruno Bischofberger was the first to show Richter's works outside Germany. Richter's first retrospective took place at the Kunsthalle Bremen in 1976 and covered works from 1962 to 1974. A traveling retrospective at Düsseldorf's Kunsthalle in 1986 was followed in 1991 by a retrospective at the Tate Gallery, London. In 1993 he received a major touring retrospective "Gerhard Richter: Malerei 1962–1993" curated by Kasper König, with a three volume catalogue edited by Benjamin Buchloch. This exhibition containing 130 works carried out over the course of thirty years, was to entirely reinvent Richter's career.

Richter became known to a U.S. audience in 1990, when the Saint Louis Art Museum circulated Baader-Meinhof (October 18, 1977), a show that that was later seen at the Lannan Foundation in Marina del Rey, California.[63] Richter's first North American retrospective was in 1998 at the Art Gallery of Ontario and at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago. In 2002, a 40-year retrospective of Richter's work was held at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and traveled to The Art Institute of Chicago, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C. He has participated in several international art shows, including the Venice Biennale (1972, 1980, 1984, 1997 and 2007), as well as Documenta V (1972), VII (1982), VIII (1987), IX (1992), and X (1997).[來源請求] In 2006, an exhibition at the Getty Center connected the landscapes of Richter to the Romantic pictures of Caspar David Friedrich, showing that both artists "used abstraction, expansiveness, and emptiness to express transcendent emotion through painting."[64]

The Gerhard Richter Archive was established in cooperation with the artist in 2005 as an institute of the Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden[65]

個展 (節選)[编辑]

識別[编辑]

Although Richter gained popularity and critical praise throughout his career, his fame burgeoned during his 2005 retrospective exhibition, which declared his place among the most important artists of the 20th century. Today, many call Gerhard Richter the best living painter. In part, this comes from his ability to explore the medium at a time when many were heralding its death. Richter has been the recipient of numerous distinguished awards, including the State Prize of the state North Rhine-Westphalia in 2000; the Wexner Prize, 1998; the Praemium Imperiale, Japan, 1997; the Golden Lion of the 47th Biennale, Venice, 1997; the Wolf Prize in Israel in 1994/5; the Kaiserring Prize der Stadt Goslar, Mönchehaus-Museum für Moderne Kunst, Goslar, Germany, 1988; the Oskar Kokoschka Prize, Vienna, 1985; the Arnold Bode Prize, Kassel, 1981; and the Junger Western Art Prize, Germany, 1961. He was made an honorary citizen of Cologne in April 2007.

File:SonicYouthDaydreamNationalbumcover.jpg
Album cover from Sonic Youth's Daydream Nation

影響[编辑]

Among the students who studied with Richter at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf between 1971 and 1994 were Ludger Gerdes, Hans-Jörg Holubitschka, Bernard Lokai, Thomas Schütte, Thomas Struth, Katrin Kneffel, Michael van Ofen, and Richter's second wife, Isa Genzken. He is known to have influenced Ellsworth Kelly, Christopher Wool, Allan Banford and Johan Andersson.

He also served as source of inspiration for writers and musicians. Sonic Youth used a painting of his for the cover art for their album Daydream Nation in 1988. He was a fan of the band and did not charge for the use of his image.[來源請求] The original, over 7米(23英尺) square, is now showcased in Sonic Youth's studio in NYC.[來源請求] Don DeLillo's short story "Baader-Meinhof" describes an encounter between two strangers at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The meeting takes place in the room displaying 18 October 1977 (1988).[70]

Photographer Cotton Coulson described Richter as "one of [his] artists"[71]

藝術市場定位[编辑]

Following an exhibition with Blinky Palermo at Galerie Heiner Friedrich in 1971, Richter's formal arrangement with the dealer came to an end in 1972. Thereafter Friedrich was only entitled to sell the paintings that he had already obtained contractually from Richter. In the following years, Richter showed with Galerie Konrad Fischer, Düsseldorf, and Sperone Westwater, New York. Today Richter is represented by Marian Goodman,[72] his primary dealer since 1985.

Today, museums own roughly 38% of Richter's works, including half of his large abstract paintings. By 2004, Richter's annual turnover was $120 million.[73] At the same time, his works often appear at auction. According to artnet, an online firm that tracks the art market, $76.9 million worth of Richter's work was sold at auction in 2010. Richter's high turnover volume reflects his prolificacy as well as his popularity. As of 2012, no fewer than 545 distinct Richter's works had sold at auctions for more than $100,000. 15 of them had sold for more than $10,000,000 between 2007 and 2012.[74] Richter's paintings have been flowing steadily out of Germany since the mid-1990s even as certain important German collectors – Frieder Burda, Josef Fröhlich, Georg Böckmann, and Ulrich Ströher – have held on to theirs.

Richter's candle paintings were the first to command high auction prices. Three months after his MoMA exhibition opened in 2001, Sotheby's sold his Three Candles (1982) for $5.3 million. In February 2008, the artist's eldest daughter, Betty, sold her Kerze (1983) for £7,972,500 ($15 million), triple the high estimate, at Sotheby's in London.[75] His 1982 Kerze (Candle) sold for £10.5 million ($16.5 million) at Christie's London in October 2011.[76]

In February 2008, Christie's London set a first record for Richter's "capitalist realism" pictures from the 1960s by selling the painting Zwei Liebespaare (1966) for £7,300,500 ($14.3 million)[77] to Stephan Schmidheiny. In 2010, the Weserburg modern art museum in Bremen, Germany, decided to sell Richter's 1966 painting Matrosen (Sailors) in a November auction held by Sotheby's, where John D. Arnold bought it for $13 million.[78] Vierwaldstätter See, the largest of a distinct series of four views of Lake Lucerne painted by Richter in 1969, sold for £15.8 million ($24 million) at Christie's London in 2015.[79]

Another coveted group of works is the Abstrakte Bilder series, particularly those made after 1988, which are finished with a large squeegee rather than a brush or roller. At Pierre Bergé & Associés in July 2009, Richter's 1979 oil painting Abstraktes Bild exceeded its estimate, selling for €95,000 ($136,000).[80] Richter's Abstraktes Bild, of 1990 was made the top price of 7.2 million pounds, or about $11.6 million, at a Sotheby's sale in February 2011 to a bidder who was said by dealers to be an agent for the New York dealer Larry Gagosian.[81] In November 2011, Sotheby's sold a group of colorful abstract canvases by Richter, including Abstraktes Bild 849-3, which made a record price for the artist at auction when Lily Safra[82] paid $20.8 million[83] only to donate it to the Israel Museum afterwards. Months later, a record $21.8 million was paid at Christie's for the 1993 painting Abstraktes Bild 798-3.[84] Abstraktes Bild (809-4), one of the artist's abstract canvases from 1994, was sold by Eric Clapton at Sotheby's to a telephone bidder for $34.2 million in late 2012. (It had been estimated to bring $14.1 million to $18.8 million.[85] When asked about amounts like that Richter said "It's just as absurd as the banking crisis. It's impossible to understand and it's daft!"[86]

影片[编辑]

外部视频链接
Portraits, Paul Moorhouse, 2009, 15:46
YouTube上的Gerhard Richter's Betty, 4:58, Smarthistory

In 2007, Corinna Belz made a short film called Gerhard Richter's Window where the media-shy artist appeared on camera for the first time in 15 years. In 2011, Belz's feature-length documentary entitled Gerhard Richter Painting was released. The film focused almost entirely on the world's highest paid living artist producing his large-scale abstract squeegee works in his studio [87]

名言語錄[编辑]

  • "One has to believe in what one is doing, one has to commit oneself inwardly, in order to do painting. Once obsessed, one ultimately carries it to the point of believing that one might change human beings through painting. But if one lacks this passionate commitment, there is nothing left to do. Then it is best to leave it alone. For basically painting is idiocy."[88]
  • "Perhaps because I'm sorry for the photograph, because it has such a miserable existence even though it is such a perfect picture, I would like to make it valid, make it visible – just make it (even if what I make is worse than the photograph). And this making is something that I can't grasp, or figure out and plan. That is why I keep on and on painting from photographs, because I can't make it out, because the only thing to do with photographs is paint from them. Because it attracts me to be so much at the mercy of a thing, to be so far from mastering it."[89]
  • "No one painting is meant to be more beautiful than, or even different from any other. Nor is it meant to be like any other, but the same: the same, though each was painted individually and by itself, not all together and all of a piece, like Multiples. I intended them to look the same but not be the same, and I intended this to be visible."[90]
  • "Painting has nothing to do with thinking, because in painting thinking is painting. Thinking is language – record-keeping – and has to take place before and after. Einstein did not think when he was calculating: he calculated – producing the next equation in reaction to the one that went before – just as in painting one form is a response to another, and so on."
  • "It makes no sense to expect or claim to 'make the invisible visible', or the unknown known, or the unthinkable thinkable. We can draw conclusions about the invisible; we can postulate its existence with relative certainty. But we all can represent is an analogy, which stands for the invisible but is not it."[91]
  • "The best thing that could have happened to art was its divorce from government."[92]
  • "Everything made since Duchamp has been a readymade, even when hand-painted."
  • At a Q&A ahead of his retrospective at the Tate Modern on 4 October 2011, he was asked: "Has the role of artist changed over the years?" Richter replied: "It's more entertainment now. We entertain people."

參見[编辑]

  • Wand (Wall)

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Gerhard Richter painting sells for record £21m. BBC News (BBC). October 13, 2012 [13 October 2012]. 
  2. ^ Richter Painting breaks record for living artist. BBC News. May 15, 2013 [15 May 2013]. 
  3. ^ Contemporary Titans Reign Supreme. Sotheby's. February 11, 2015 [11 February 2015]. 
  4. ^ Elger 2009,p.3)
  5. ^ Elger 2009,p.4)
  6. ^ Elger 2009,pp.4–5)
  7. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Ju Harten.
  8. ^ Elger 2009,p.6)
  9. ^ Elger 2009,p.10)
  10. ^ Elger 2009,pp.15–18)
  11. ^ Gerhard Richter Guggenheim Collection
  12. ^ Sebastian Preus (January 29, 1998), Gebauter Symbolismus oder reine Form?
  13. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  14. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  15. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  16. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  17. ^ Gerhard Richter MoMA | The Collection
  18. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  19. ^ Gerhard Richter Portraits, 26 February – 31 May 2009 National Portrait Gallery, London
  20. ^ Gerhard Richter: Panorama, 6 October 2011 – 8 January 2012 Tate Modern, London
  21. ^ Gerhard Richter: Gilbert, George (381-1, 381-2), 1975 Tate Collection
  22. ^ Gerhard Richter, Elizabeth I (1966) Tate Collection
  23. ^ Elizabeth II by Gerhard Richter MoMA | Collection
  24. ^ Gerhard Richter: Vesuv (Vesuvius) 407, 1976 Philips de Pury & Company, New York
  25. ^ Gerhard Richter: Landscapes Hatje Cantz Publishing
  26. ^ Elger 2009,pp.173–74)
  27. ^ Gerhard Richter, Große Teyde-Landschaft (1971) Christie's Post-War & Contemporary Evening Sale, 14 November 2012, New York
  28. ^ Gerhard Richter: Atlas 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  29. ^ Elger 2009,p.202)
  30. ^ Sarah Thornton (October 8, 2011), Selling Gerhard Richter – The bold standard The Economist
  31. ^ Gerhard Richter, Kerze (Candle) (1982) Christie's London, Post-War & Contemporary Art Evening Auction, 14 October 2011
  32. ^ Gerhard Richter: October 18, 1977 MoMA | Collection
  33. ^ Aidan Dunne (October 14, 2011), From hot to cool on the Richter scale The Irish Times
  34. ^ Gottlieb, Benjamin. Art Books in Review: Gerhard Richter is Speechless. The Brooklyn Rail. February 2011. 
  35. ^ Tom McCarthy (September 22, 2011), Blurred visionary: Gerhard Richter's photo-paintings The Guardian
  36. ^ Gerhard Richter, Abstraktes Bild 798-3 (1993) Christie's Post-War and Contemporary Art Evening Sale, 8 May 2012
  37. ^ Rachel Saltz (March 13, 2012), "An Artist at Work, Looking and Judging: Gerhard Richter Painting, a Documentary", The New York Times
  38. ^ Gerhard Richter: Abstract Painting (809-3), 1994Tate, London
  39. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  40. ^ Gerhard Richter Firenze Marian Goodman Gallery, June 21 through August 30th, 2002
  41. ^ Gerhard Richter: Abstract Painting (Skin) (887-3) 2004Tate, London
  42. ^ Gerhard Richter Tate Modern, Collection Displays
  43. ^ Alexander Adams (June 13, 2013),At the top of his game The Art Newspaper.
  44. ^ Dieter Schwarz (February 14, 2013), Picture preview: Gerhard Richter's previously unseen November series The Independent.
  45. ^ Gerhard Richter (b. 1932), 4096 Farben, Sale 1373 Christie's London, 11 May 2004
  46. ^ Gerhard Richter: 180 Farben (180 Colors) Philadelphia Museum of Art Collection
  47. ^ Colour Chart: Reinventing Colour, 1950 to Today Tate Liverpool, 29 May through 13 September 2009
  48. ^ Gerhard Richter: 4900 Colours Hatje Cantz Publishing, 2008
  49. ^ Gerhard Richter: 11 Panes, 2004 Tate Collection
  50. ^ Gerhard Richter: Mirror Painting (Grey, 735-2), 1991 Tate, London
  51. ^ Gerhard Richter 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆, Dia Art Foundation
  52. ^ Gerhard Richter and Jorge Pardo: Refraction 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  53. ^ Gerhard Richter: Painting 2012, September 12 – October 13, 2012 Marian Goodman Gallery, New York
  54. ^ Cotter, Holland. Building an Art of Virtuouso Ambiguity. The New York Times. 9 September 2010. 
  55. ^ Lossin, R.H. Gerhard Richter: Lines which do not exist. The Brooklyn Rail. October 2010. 
  56. ^ Carol Vogel (March 28, 2013), More Richter At Auction, The New York Times
  57. ^ Elger 2009,p.278)
  58. ^ Cologne Cathedral Gets New Stained-Glass Window Der Spiegel, August 27, 2007
  59. ^ Fortini, Amanda. Pixelated Stained Glass. The New York Times. 2007-12-09 [2008-01-12]. ISSN 0362-4331. 
  60. ^ Gerhard Richter weist Meisners Kritik zurück, Die Welt, 31 August 2007.
  61. ^ Window by Artist Gerhard Richter Unveiled at Cologne Cathedral, Deutsche Welle, 27 August 2007
  62. ^ Peter Schjeldahl, "Many-colored Glass: Gerhard Richter and Sigmar Polke do windows, The New Yorker, May 12, 2008.
  63. ^ Christopher Knight (April 6, 2002),A Brush With Pop – A MOMA retrospective on Gerhard Richter might make you wrongly think he's a Conceptual painter.
  64. ^ "From Caspar David Friedrich to Gerhard Richter: German Paintings from Dresden", October 5, 2006 – April 29, 2007 at the Getty Center
  65. ^ www.gerhard-richter-archiv.de
  66. ^ Gerhard Richter 4900 Colours: Version II. Serpentine Gallery. 2008-11-23 [2011-10-08]. 
  67. ^ Current Exhibitions | Gerhard Richter: Panorama. Tate Modern. [2011-10-08]. 
  68. ^ Richter, le plus grand peintre du monde, Le Point, 31 May 2012
  69. ^ Gerhard Richter.
  70. ^ Don DeLillo (17 August 2002) "Baader-Meinhof" The Guardian; Gordon Burn (20 September 2008), "I believe in nothing", The Guardian
  71. ^ National Geographic Traveller: Cotton Coulson, at the World Photographic Organisation; published December 10, 2014; retrieved June 21, 2015
  72. ^ Gerhard Richter Marian Goodman Gallery
  73. ^ Roger Boyes (June 17, 2006), Nazi ghosts haunting a family The Times
  74. ^ The commodification of Gerhard Richter. Reuters. 
  75. ^ Gerhard Richter b. 1932, Kerze (Candle), Sale: L08020 Sotheby's London, Contemporary Art Evening Auction, 27 February 2008
  76. ^ Scott Reyburn (October 14, 2011), Richter $16.6 Million Record Leads Auction Boost to Art Market Bloomberg News
  77. ^ Gerhard Richter (b. 1932) Zwei Liebespaare, Sale 7565 Christie's London, Post-War and Contemporary Art Evening Sale, 6 February 2008
  78. ^ Gerhard Richter, b.1932: Matrosen (Sailors).
  79. ^ Scott Reyburn (February 12, 2015), Christie's and Sotheby's Auctions in London Keep the Bubble Afloat The New York Times
  80. ^ Abstraktes Bild – Abstract Painting 1979: Catalogue Raisonné 447.
  81. ^ Souren Melikian. Disruptions at Sotheby's Contemporary Auction. The New York Times. February 16, 2011. 
  82. ^ Carol Vogel (January 12, 2012), Surprise!
  83. ^ Carol Vogel (November 9, 2011), As Stocks Fall, Art Surges At a $315.8 Million Sale, The New York Times
  84. ^ Scott Reyburn (June 13, 2012), Hedge Funder Cohen, Eye Rothko, $25 Million Richter Sells Bloomberg
  85. ^ Carol Vogel (October 15, 2012), Gerhard Richter Painting Sets Record Auction Price for a Living Artist, The New York Times
  86. ^ "Gerhard Richter talks about Panorama at Tate Modern", Phaidon.com, October 2011 Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. 空的。
  87. ^ Crow, Kelly. The Top-Selling Living Artist. Wall Street Journal. March 16, 2012. 
  88. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  89. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  90. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  91. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.
  92. ^ Richter, Gerhard, and Hans Ulrich Obrist.

參考書目[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]