Help:德语国际音标

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下表为德语发音在维基百科中用国际音标(IPA)表示的方式。另请参阅德語音系

辅音
标准德语  奥地利德语 瑞士德语 举例 英语近似发音 普通话拼音近似发音
b bei[1] ball 浊音的b
ç ich, durch; China (DE) hue 无(发h音时将舌中部抬高)
d dann[1] done 浊音的d
f für, von fuss f
ɡ gut[1] guest 浊音的g
h hat hut 无(发h音时将舌根降低)
j Jahr yard y
k kann, Tag[2] cold k
l Leben last l
Mantel bottle
m Mann must m
Atem rhythm
n Name not n
beiden suddenly
ŋ lang long ng
ŋ̍ wenigen shock'ng (shocking的方言)
p Person, ab[2] puck p
pf Pfeffer cupful 无(p和f)
ʀ r reden[3] DE: French rouge

AT, CH: far (苏格兰英语)

无(小舌音)
s lassen, Haus, groß fast s
ʃ schon, Stadt shall 无(近似于sh,或翘舌的x)
t Tag, und[2] tall t
ts Zeit, Platz cats c
Matsch match 无(近似于ch,或翘舌的q)
v was[1] vanish f的浊音
x nach loch h
z Sie, diese[1] hose s的浊音
ʔ beamtet[4]

([bəˈʔamtət])

uh-oh!中的停顿
外来辅音
Dschungel[1][5] jungle 无(近似于翘舌j)
ʒ Genie[1][5] pleasure
重音
ˈ Bahnhofstraße

([ˈbaːnhoːfˌʃtʁaːsə])

as in battleship /ˈbætəlˌʃɪp/
ˌ


元音
标准德语   奥地利德语  瑞士德语  举例 英语近似发音 普通话拼音近似发音
单元音
a alles[6] art (no r-colouring) a
aber, sah[6] father
ɛ Ende, hätte bet yuan
ɛː spät, wählen[7] bed
eben, gehen pays (Scottish) hei
ɪ ist, bitte sit ya 舌中部抬高
viel, Berlin tea i
ɔ Osten, kommen lot (RP and Australian) o
oder, hohe law (RP and Australian)
œ öffnen roughly like hurt (no r-colouring)
øː Österreich roughly like herd (no r-colouring)
ʊ und took (Australian) 介于o和u,且开口大
Hut pool u
ʏ müssen roughly like Scottish shoot ü
über roughly like Scottish shoes
双元音
ae ein bite ai
ao auf shout ao
ɔø ɔɪ Euro, Häuser loiter 无(o+i或o+ü)
元音弱化
ɐ ər immer[3] DE, AT: roughly like fun

CH: butter (Scottish)

ə Name ago 近似于e
半元音
ɐ̯ r Uhr[3] DE, AT: roughly like idea

CH: far (Scottish)

Studie yard
aktuell would
外来元音
ãː Gourmand[8] chanson (French pron., but long) 带鼻音的a
ɛ̃ː Pointe[8] vingt-et-un (French pron., but long) yuan
õː Garçon[8] chanson (French pron., but long) 带鼻音的o
œ̃ː Parfum[8] vingt-et-un (French pron., but long)
œːɐ̯ O2 World[9] roughly like herd
短元音
a Kalender[6][10] art (no r-colouring)
ã engagieren[8] chanson (short [ãː])
ɛ̃ impair[8] vingt-et-un (short [ɛ̃ː])
e Element[10] pace (Scottish)
i Italien[10] teach
o originell[10] force (RP and Australian)
õ fon[8] chanson (short [õː])
œ̃ Lundist[8] vingt-et-un (short [œ̃ː])
ø Ökonom[10] roughly like hurt (no r-colouring)
u Universität[10] truth
y Psychologie[10] roughly like Scottish shoot

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 In Austrian Standard German and Swiss Standard German, the lenis obstruents /b, d, ɡ, z, dʒ, ʒ/ are voiceless [b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, z̥, d̥ʒ̊, ʒ̊] and are distinguished from /p, t, k, s, tʃ, ʃ/ only by articulatory strength (/v/ is really voiced).
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Injavascript:void() German Standard German, voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ are devoiced to [p, t, k] at the end of a syllable. 引用错误:带有name属性“devoicing”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次 引用错误:带有name属性“devoicing”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Pronunciation of /r/ in German varies according to region and speaker.
  4. ^ Initial vowels are usually preceded by [ʔ], except in Swiss Standard German.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Many speakers lack the lenis /ʒ/ and replace it with its fortis counterpart /ʃ/ (Hall (2003:42)).
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Some scholars write [ɑː] for [aː], and [ɑ] for its shortened counterpart, thus differentiating between regular [a] and shortened [ɑ] (see e.g.
  7. ^ In Northern Germany, /ɛː/ often merges with /eː/ to [].
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 The nasal vowels occur in French loans.
  9. ^ [œːɐ̯] is the German rendering of the English Template:Smallcapital vowel /ɜːr/.
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 [a, e, i, o, ø, u, y], the short versions of the long vowels [aː, eː, iː, oː, øː, uː, yː], are used at the end of unstressed syllables before the accented syllable and occur mainly in loanwords.