覺察

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

覺察(英語:mindfulness,又稱正念)是一種心理過程,目的是在沒有判斷的情況下有意識地將注意力轉移到當前發生的經驗上[1][2][3][4],能以冥想和其他訓練發展而成[2][5][6]。覺察源自於[7][8]、禪、觀和藏傳冥想技巧[9][10]。覺察的定義和技巧範圍很廣[11],而佛教傳統解釋了覺察的構成要素,即過去、現在、和未來的當下感覺和心智現象之生滅[7][12][13]。現代西方社會中為覺察的普及做出貢獻者包括釋一行賀伯特·班森英语Herbert Benson喬·卡巴金理查·戴維森英语Richard Davidson[14][15][16]

自1970年代以來,臨床心理學和精神病學已經開發了許多基於覺察的治療方法,以幫助人們體驗各種心理狀況[16]。覺察練習已被用於減輕憂鬱症[17][18]、降低壓力[18][19][20]和焦慮[18][21][22],以及用於治療藥物成癮[23][24][25]。而在學校、監獄、醫院、退伍軍人中心和其他環境中亦採用了以覺察模式為基礎之計劃,並將之應用於諸如健康老化、體重管理、運動表現、特教需求,以及產期介入。

臨床研究已證明,在不同類別患者以及健康的成年人和兒童中,覺察對身體和心理健康都有好處[3][26]。研究指出,特質覺察與心理健康之間存在正相關關係[27][28]。覺察練習似乎有益於治療精神病患者[29][30][31],有研究提到,沉思和擔憂會導致多種心智疾病[32][33][34],而覺察則可減少沉思和擔心[34][35][36],進而可預防心理健康問題的出現[37][38]

也有證據表明,進行覺察冥想可能會影響身體健康。例如,反覆地生活在壓力想法(即沉思)中,似乎會增強生理壓力源(此為交感神經系統和下視丘-腦下垂體-腎上腺軸的持續活化之結果),這會導致身體健康相關的臨床表現[39][40][41]。研究亦提到,減少沉思的覺察冥想可能會改變這些生物臨床路徑[42][34][43]。此外,覺察有利於免疫系統和減少發炎[3][44][45],特別是可減少某些慢性疾病所產生的發炎狀況[46][47],有多項研究都支持這些發現[48][49][50]。再者,覺察亦可對大腦內建網路模式帶來較低的活化程度,進而降低罹患失智症和阿茲海默症的風險[51]

然而,有人對覺察的商業化和過度的健康行銷提出質疑,強調需要更多的隨機控制研究、方法學上的細節陳述、以及使用更多的樣本數[52][53][54]

覺察練習[编辑]

覺察練習,係指發展某種對當下發生事物所需注意力之過程[2][55][56]

注意呼吸、感受身體和其他技巧[编辑]

有許多練習方法可用來發展覺察冥想,而在冥想的指導下加以「掌握竅門」[57][58]

  • 一種方法是坐在直椅上,或盤腿坐在地板或墊子上,閉上眼睛,注意力放在鼻孔的呼吸感覺或呼吸時的腹部運動[59][60][1]。在這種冥想練習中,人不會想要控制自己的呼吸,而只是簡單地意識到自己的自然呼吸過程或節奏[2]。進行這種練習時,人的心智常常會流向其他思緒或與自己有關的事物上,一旦如此,人會不自主地發現自己的心智開始閒晃,並且以一種接受的、無評斷的方式回到注意呼吸這件事情上。
  • 感受身體冥想中,注意力會被導向至身體的各個部位,並留意當下的身體感覺[1][2][61][62]
  • 人還會注意當下的聲音、感覺、想法、感受和動作[2][63]。有關這一點,卡巴金在其 MBSR 課程中提出一個著名的練習方法[64],就是用心(mind,亦可說是意志、意念、心智、心的作用)來品嚐葡萄乾[65][66]。訓練這種內在饑餓感和飽足感的連結思維,可使意念上的吃,來維持健康的和有意識的進食模式[67]

時機[编辑]

建議冥想者從每天大約10分鐘的短暫練習開始。在持續練習後,將注意力集中在呼吸上會變得更容易[2][68]

佛教語彙;道德戒律[编辑]

在佛教語彙中,保持道德戒律是覺察或冥想的重要預備階段[69][70]。其中,這個概念可包括對無我無常的思考和反思,以及對緣起和其他佛教教義的反思[71][72]

譯名[编辑]

覺察冥想是佛教傳統和實驗心理學的一部分[73][74][75]

Sati 與 smṛti[编辑]

佛教術語「覺察」或「」源於巴利語的 sati(天城文:सति),其對應的梵語為 smṛti(天城文:स्मृति)。它常被詮釋為「無遮的、純粹的注意力」,但在佛教傳統中,其意義和應用性是很廣的,且這些名詞的涵義都仍有討論空間[76]

根據 Bryan Levman 的說法,在傳統佛教的中,巴利語 sati 這個字有「記憶和紀念」之意,且若去掉了記憶這個元素,吾人便無法理解、應用、和實踐「覺察」[77]

根據 Robert Sharf 的說法,梵語 smṛti 這個字最初是指「去記得、去重拾、去記住」的神聖吠陀經語意。而在《念處經》中,巴利語 sati 則是指去記得人世間可見的現象本質:[78]。Sharf 用《彌蘭王問經》來說明,「念」起可使人想起有益之法,如想起覺察的四個基礎(即四念住或四念處):身念住、受念住、心念住、法念住;想起五力:信力、精進力、念力、定力、慧力;和想起八正道:正見、正思維、正語、正業、正命、正精進、正念、正定[79]

根據 Rupert Gethin 的說法,

巴利語 sati 可用來覺知法、覺知事體關係、覺知相對價值。應用到四念住時,sati 可使瑜珈練習者「記得」人所感受到的事物都與萬物有關,亦即感官世界的拙劣、善惡、高下、黑白等,皆為相互存在[80][81]

Sharf 進一步指出,由於四念住須對現象出現時進行適當的道德價值區分,而四念住指的即是八正道中的「正念(正向的念頭。身受心法四念住,需與正見和正精進共同合作)」。因此四念住與現今對 sati 的流行詮釋「無遮的、純粹的注意力」毫無關係[82]。據此,sati 所表達的就是「許多心念的狀況」,是故最合乎 mindfulness 原意的中文名詞即為覺察(或)。

Georges Dreyfus 也提到將 mindfulness 定義為「無遮的、純粹的注意力」或「不費心、無評斷、當下自我中心的覺知」似乎不夠完善。佛學語意中的 mindfulness 包含「記得」之意,其功能也涵蓋了訊息之保留[83]。Sharf 注意到佛教徒平日練習的目標在於正確視野或正確觀念,並非僅是無遮的、純粹的注意力[84]。Jay L. Garfield 引述寂天和其他資料,提到 mindfulness 有二個功能:提醒和謹記。從佛學範疇和現今 mindfulness 字詞源流來看,Garfield 認為覺察練習和道德修養有直接關係[85]

英文翻譯[编辑]

巴利語學者托馬斯·威廉·里斯·戴維茲英语Thomas William Rhys Davids(1843–1922)於1881年首次將 sati 這個巴利語翻譯為英文 mindfulness,用以表現出「正確的念」,意即正確的覺察(或念)、主動的、警惕的心智(或意念)[86]

Daniel John Gogerly (1845) 首次將 sammā-sati 翻譯為「正確的冥想(correct meditation)」[87],戴維茲將其解釋為:

sati 字面上的意思是記憶,但人們卻又不斷地以「注意的和周到的 」的意思來談 sati。事實上,sati 所指的心智活動和心智持續存在之概念,這是好的佛教徒最常被灌輸的一種責任和本分[88]

其他翻譯[编辑]

John D. Dunne英语John D. Dunne主張,把 mindfulness當作是 sati 和 smṛti 的英文翻譯,這是很令人困惑的事。有許多佛教學者已經試圖將「記憶力 (retention)」當成 mindfulness 的替代性英文翻譯[89]菩提比丘英语Bhikkhu Bodhi法師也認為 sati 的意思是記憶[90]

sati/smṛti 曾經被翻譯為:

  • 注意力 Attention(Jack Kornfield)
  • 覺知 Awareness
  • 聚焦注意力 Concentrated attention(Mahasi Sayadaw)
  • 檢查 Inspection(Herbert V. Günther)
  • 覺察性的注意力 Mindful attention
  • 覺察 Mindfulness
  • 回憶覺察 Recollecting mindfulness(Alexander Berzin)
  • 回憶 Recollection(Erik Pema Kunsang, Buddhadasa)
  • 沉思覺知 Reflective awareness(Buddhadasa)
  • 再次覺察 Remindfulness(James H. Austin)
  • 記憶力 Retention
  • 自我回憶 Self-recollection(Jack Kornfield)

定義[编辑]

心理學[编辑]

A. M. Hayes 和 G. Feldman 強調覺察是一種用來避免某種情緒和防止情緒介入過深的策略。覺察亦是一種發展自我知識和智慧的方法。

特質、狀態、和練習[编辑]

根據Brown、Ryan和Creswell 的說法,覺察的定義取決於個體自身和如何應用之。有人將覺察當作一種心智狀態,有人則當它是一組技能和技術。覺察的狀態和覺察的特質是可以分別討論的。

根據David S. Black,覺察最初與深奧的信仰和宗教有關,是某些人才能具備的能力,科學家將這個名詞變成可以量化的術語,以提供覺察的操作性定義。Black提到三個可能的範疇:

  1. 特質,一種性情特徵(維持相對較長時間的特質),是一個人較常進入和容易維持許多注意力的狀態。
  2. 狀態,一種結果(透過覺察訓練而產生的覺知狀態),是一種覺知當下的狀態。
  3. 練習(覺察冥想練習)。
像特質的結構[编辑]

Brown認為覺察是:一種與被增強活動不同型態的意識顯現。透過特質結構的自我報告方式,人們已發展出覺察的測量工具:

  • 覺察式的注意力覺知量表 - Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
  • Freiburg 覺察量表 - Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI)
  • 肯塔基覺察技巧量表 - Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS)
  • 認知與情意覺察量表 - Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS)
  • 覺察問卷 - Mindfulness Questionnaire (MQ)
  • 認知與情意覺察量表(修訂版) - Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R)
  • 費城覺察量表 - Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS)
像狀態的現象[编辑]

Bishop等人認為覺察是:一種不費心、無評斷、當下自我中心的覺知,它會確認每一個因注意力而生起的思想、感覺、或知覺,並且就這麼接受它了。

測量工具有:

  • 多倫多覺察量表 - The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS),此量表將覺察視為一種像狀態的現象,可經由一般性的練習將其喚醒或維持之。
  • 狀態性覺察量表 - The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS),此量表包含21題整體性的狀態覺察問題,它另有二個子量表(心智狀態覺察和身體狀態覺察)。

覺察的練習[编辑]

覺察的練習,有以下幾種描述方式:

  • 覺察是一種起源於東方冥想練習之聚焦注意力方式。
  • 用特定方式聚焦注意力:故意地、當下地、無評斷地。
  • 將全部注意力放在所經歷到的每一個當下。

根據 Steven F. Hick 的說法,覺察練習包括正式的與隨意的冥想練習、和非冥想式的練習。正式覺察(或正式冥想)是一種將注意力持續放在身體、呼吸、知覺、或當下興起的念頭;隨意的覺察應用在每日的覺察性注意力。非冥想式的練習則是特別用在辯證行為療法英语Dialectical behavior therapy和用在接受與承諾療法英语Acceptance and commitment therapy

現代冥想教學所興起的覺察定義[编辑]

從1970年代開始,大部分的冥想書籍都使用類似喬·卡巴金所提出的覺察定義:「當下的覺知(present moment awareness)」。但近來有許多冥想教師提出不太一樣的覺察定義,如楊增善英语Shinzen Young認為能夠同時有聚焦能力、知覺清晰、心神安寧的人,才是一個覺察的人。John Yates (Culadasa) 則認為注意力和對周遭事物覺知能力是二種可以區別開來的能力,他定義覺察為:「注意力和對周遭事物覺知能力之最適交互作用。」

佛教[编辑]

根據美國佛教徒Bhante Vimalaramsi英语Bhante Vimalaramsi的專書《靜智洞察冥想指引》(A Guide to Tranquil Wisdom Insight Meditation),他認為覺察之字意常和佛教的原始涵義不同,他提供的定義是:

覺察意指記得去觀察心智注意力如何從一事物轉到另一事物。覺察的第一步是記得去觀照內心、記得在心思混亂時回到冥想的主體,第二步則是觀察心智注意力如何從一事物轉到另一事物。

其他用法[编辑]

在西方佛教徒開始使用 mindfulness 之前,此英文字早已存在。1530年首次以 myndfulness 的拼法出現,是由約翰·帕爾格雷夫英语John Palsgrave翻譯法文pensée思想);1561年拼為 mindfulnesse;1817年拼為 mindfulness。就詞法學的角度而言,更早的型態包括mindful(首次記載於1340年)、mindfully(1382年)及已淘汰的mindiness(約1200年)。[91]

根據《韋伯字典》,mindfulness 可意指「一種覺知的狀態(a state of being aware)」,同義字為覺醒、注意、警覺、謹慎、盡職、覺知、意識和觀察。

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Kabat-Zinn J. Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York: Bantam Dell. 2013. ISBN 978-0345539724. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Creswell JD. Mindfulness Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology. January 2017, 68: 491–516. PMID 27687118. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-042716-051139. 
  4. ^ American Psychological Association (APA.org, 2012); Kabat-Zinn, in Purser, 2015; as cited at PositivePsychology.com, What Is Mindfulness? Definition + Benefits (Incl. Psychology).
  5. ^ Slagter HA, Davidson RJ, Lutz A. Mental training as a tool in the neuroscientific study of brain and cognitive plasticity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2011, 5: 17. PMC 3039118. PMID 21347275. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00017. 
  6. ^ Gary Deatherage. The clinical use of "mindfulness" meditation techniques in short-term psychotherapy (PDF). Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. 1975, 7 (2): 133–43. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Karunamuni N, Weerasekera R. Theoretical Foundations to Guide Mindfulness Meditation: A Path to Wisdom. Current Psychology. 2019, 38 (3): 627–646. doi:10.1007/s12144-017-9631-7. 
  8. ^ Van Gordon W, Shonin E, Griffiths MD, Singh NN. There is Only One Mindfulness: Why Science and Buddhism Need to Work Together. Mindfulness. 2014, 6: 49–56. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0379-y. 
  9. ^ Nisbet, Matthew (2017). "The Mindfulness Movement: How a Buddhist Practice Evolved into a Scientific Approach to Life". Skeptical Inquirer. 41 (3): 24–26. Archived from the original on 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  10. ^ Wilson J (2014). Mindful America: The Mutual Transformation of Buddhist Meditation and American Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 35.
  11. ^ Thompson, Evan (2020). Why I Am Not a Buddhist. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-300-22655-3.
  12. ^ Anālayo B (2003). Satipaṭṭhāna, the direct path to realization. Windhorse Publications.
  13. ^ Bhikkhu Bodhi. "The Noble Eightfold Path". Access to Insight. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
  14. ^ Buchholz L. Exploring the Promise of Mindfulness as Medicine. JAMA. October 2015, 314 (13): 1327–9. PMID 26441167. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.7023. 
  15. ^ Davidson R. Meditation and neuroplasticity: training your brain. Interview by Bonnie J. Horrigan. Explore. September 2005, 1 (5): 380–8. PMID 16781570. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2005.06.013. 
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Harrington A, Dunne JD. When mindfulness is therapy: Ethical qualms, historical perspectives. The American Psychologist. October 2015, 70 (7): 621–31. PMID 26436312. doi:10.1037/a0039460. 
  17. ^ Blanck P, Perleth S, Heidenreich T. Kroeger P, Ditzen B, Bents H, Mander J. (2018). "Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 102: 25–35. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0379-y.PMID 29291584
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 18.2 Khoury B, Sharma M, Rush SE, Fournier C. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. June 2015, 78 (6): 519–28. PMID 25818837. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.03.009. 
  19. ^ Sharma M, Rush SE (October 2014). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a stress management intervention for healthy individuals: a systematic review". Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 19 (4): 271–86. doi:10.1177/2156587214543143.PMID 25053754
  20. ^ Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D (April 2010). "The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 78 (2): 169–83. doi:10.1037/a0018555. PMC 2848393. PMID 20350028
  21. ^ Blanck P, Perleth S, Heidenreich T. Kroeger P, Ditzen B, Bents H, Mander J. (2018). "Effects of mindfulness exercises as stand-alone intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression: Systematic review and meta-analysis". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 102: 25–35. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0379-y.PMID 29291584
  22. ^ Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D (April 2010). "The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 78 (2): 169–83. doi:10.1037/a0018555. PMC 2848393. PMID 20350028
  23. ^ Chiesa A, Serretti A. Are mindfulness-based interventions effective for substance use disorders? A systematic review of the evidence. Substance Use & Misuse. April 2014, 49 (5): 492–512. PMID 23461667. doi:10.3109/10826084.2013.770027. 
  24. ^ Garland EL, Froeliger B, Howard MO. Mindfulness training targets neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface. Frontiers in Psychiatry. January 2014, 4: 173. PMC 3887509. PMID 24454293. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00173. 
  25. ^ Sancho M, De Gracia M, Rodríguez RC, Mallorquí-Bagué N, Sánchez-González J, Trujols J, Sánchez I, Jiménez-Murcia S and Menchón JM. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for the Treatment of Substance and Behavioral Addictions: A Systematic Review. Front. Psychiatry. 2018, 9 (95): 95. PMC 5884944. PMID 29651257. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00095. 
  26. ^ Paulus MP. Neural Basis of Mindfulness Interventions that Moderate the Impact of Stress on the Brain. Neuropsychopharmacology. January 2016, 41 (1): 373. PMC 4677133. PMID 26657952. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.239. 
  27. ^ Tomlinson ER, Yousaf O, Vittersø AD, Jones L. Dispositional Mindfulness and Psychological Health: a Systematic Review. Mindfulness. 2018, 9 (1): 23–43. PMC 5770488. PMID 29387263. doi:10.1007/s12671-017-0762-6. 
  28. ^ Keng SL, Smoski MJ, Robins CJ. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review. August 2011, 31 (6): 1041–56. PMC 3679190. PMID 21802619. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006. 
  29. ^ Goldberg SB, Tucker RP, Greene PA, Davidson RJ, Wampold BE, Kearney DJ, Simpson TL. Mindfulness-based interventions for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review. February 2018, 59: 52–60. PMC 5741505. PMID 29126747. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2017.10.011. 
  30. ^ Boyd JE, Lanius RA, McKinnon MC. Mindfulness-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the treatment literature and neurobiological evidence. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience. January 2018, 43 (1): 7–25. PMC 5747539. PMID 29252162. doi:10.1503/jpn.170021. 
  31. ^ Rodrigues MF, Nardi AE, Levitan M. Mindfulness in mood and anxiety disorders: a review of the literature. Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy. 2017, 39 (3): 207–215. PMID 28767927. doi:10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0051. 
  32. ^ Kaplan DM, Palitsky R, Carey AL, Crane TE, Havens CM, Medrano MR, 等. Maladaptive repetitive thought as a transdiagnostic phenomenon and treatment target: An integrative review. Journal of Clinical Psychology. July 2018, 74 (7): 1126–1136. PMID 29342312. doi:10.1002/jclp.22585. 
  33. ^ Ed Watkins. Psychological treatment of depressive rumination. Current Opinion in Psychology. 2015, 4: 32–36. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.020. hdl:10871/17315. 
  34. ^ 34.0 34.1 34.2 Querstret D, Cropley M. Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: a systematic review (PDF). Clinical Psychology Review. December 2013, 33 (8): 996–1009. PMID 24036088. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.08.004. 
  35. ^ Gu J, Strauss C, Bond R, Cavanagh K. How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical Psychology Review. April 2015, 37: 1–12. PMID 25689576. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006. 
  36. ^ Perestelo-Perez L, Barraca J, Peñate W, Rivero-Santana A, Alvarez-Perez Y. Mindfulness-based interventions for the treatment of depressive rumination: Systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. 2017, 17 (3): 282–295. PMC 6220915. PMID 30487903. doi:10.1016/j.ijchp.2017.07.004. 
  37. ^ Tang YY, Leve LD. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy. Translational Behavioral Medicine. March 2016, 6 (1): 63–72. PMC 4807201. PMID 27012254. doi:10.1007/s13142-015-0360-x. 
  38. ^ Cheng FK. Is meditation conducive to mental well-being for adolescents? An integrative review for mental health nursing. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. 2016, 4: 7–19. doi:10.1016/j.ijans.2016.01.001. 
  39. ^ Karunamuni N, Imayama I, Goonetilleke D. (2020). "Pathways to well-being: Untangling the causal relationships among biopsychosocial variables". Social Science & Medicine: 112846. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.112846. PMID 32089388.
  40. ^ Grierson AB, Hickie IB, Naismith SL, Scott J. (2016). "The role of rumination in illness trajectories in youth: linking trans-diagnostic processes with clinical staging models". Psychol. Med. 46 (12): 2467–2484. doi:10.1017/S0033291716001392. PMC 4988274. PMID 27352637.
  41. ^ Verkuil B, Brosschot JF, Gebhardt WA, Thayer JF. (2010). "When worries make you sick: a review of perseverative cognition, the default stress response and somatic health". J. Exp. Psychopathol. 1 (1): 87–118. doi:10.5127/jep.009110.
  42. ^ Karunamuni N, Imayama I, Goonetilleke D. (2020). "Pathways to well-being: Untangling the causal relationships among biopsychosocial variables". Social Science & Medicine: 112846. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.112846. PMID 32089388.
  43. ^ Pascoe, Michaela C.; Thompson, David R.; Jenkins, Zoe M.; Ski, Chantal F. (December 2017). "Mindfulness mediates the physiological markers of stress: Systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 95: 156–178. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.08.004. PMID 28863392.
  44. ^ Black DS, Slavich GM. (2016). "Mindfulness meditation and the immune system: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1373 (1): 13–24. Bibcode:2016NYASA1373...13B. doi:10.1111/nyas.12998. PMC 4940234. PMID 26799456.
  45. ^ Creswell, J. David; Lindsay, Emily K.; Villalba, Daniella K.; Chin, Brian (April 2019). "Mindfulness Training and Physical Health". Psychosomatic Medicine. 81 (3): 224–232. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000675. PMC 6613793. PMID 30806634.
  46. ^ Liu YZ, Wang YX, Jiang CL. (2017). "Inflammation: the common pathway of stress related diseases". Front. Hum. Neurosci. 11 (316): 316. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00316. PMC 5476783. PMID 28676747.
  47. ^ Kelly SJ, Ismail M. (2015). "Stress and type 2 diabetes: a review of how stress contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes". Annu. Rev. Publ. Health. 36: 441–462. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122921. PMID 25581145.
  48. ^ Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Gathright, Emily C; Donahue, Marissa L; Balletto, Brittany; Feulner, Melissa M; DeCosta, Julie; Cruess, Dean G; Wing, Rena R; Carey, Michael P; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena (January 2020). "Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Adults with Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 54 (1): 67–73. doi:10.1093/abm/kaz020. PMC 6922300. PMID 31167026.
  49. ^ Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M. (April 2014). "A meta-analytic review of the effects of mindfulness meditation on telomerase activity". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 42: 45–48. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.12.017. PMID 24636500. S2CID 39094183.
  50. ^ Pascoe, Michaela C.; Thompson, David R.; Jenkins, Zoe M.; Ski, Chantal F. (December 2017). "Mindfulness mediates the physiological markers of stress: Systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 95: 156–178. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.08.004. PMID 28863392.
  51. ^ Karunamuni N, Imayama I, Goonetilleke D. (2020). "Pathways to well-being: Untangling the causal relationships among biopsychosocial variables". Social Science & Medicine: 112846. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.112846. PMID 32089388.
  52. ^ Creswell JD (January 2017). "Mindfulness Interventions". Annual Review of Psychology. 68: 491–516. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-042716-051139. PMID 27687118. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction).
  53. ^ Keng SL, Smoski MJ, Robins CJ (August 2011). "Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies". Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (6): 1041–56. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006. PMC 3679190. PMID 21802619.
  54. ^ Farias M. "Mindfulness Has Lost Its Buddhist Roots, and it may not be doing you good". The Conversation. Retrieved 5 February 2020. What was once a tool for spiritual exploration has been turned into a panacea for the modern age — a cure-all for common human problems, from stress, to anxiety, to depression. [...] Yet the potential for emotional and psychological disturbance is rarely talked about by mindfulness researchers, the media, or mentioned in training courses. [...] Mindfulness has been separated from its roots, stripped of its ethical and spiritual connotations, and sold to us as a therapeutic tool. [...] Instead, as Giles Coren recently claimed, this technique has been turned into a McMindfulness which only reinforces one’s egocentric drives.
  55. ^ Karunamuni N, Weerasekera R (2019). "Theoretical Foundations to Guide Mindfulness Meditation: A Path to Wisdom". Current Psychology. 38 (3): 627–646. doi:10.1007/s12144-017-9631-7. S2CID 149024504.
  56. ^ Gunaratana B (2011). Mindfulness in plain English (PDF). Boston: Wisdom Publications. p. 21. ISBN 978-0861719068. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  57. ^ Kabat-Zinn himself, in Full Catastrophe Living (Revised Edition) (2013), p. lxiv
  58. ^ Nisbet, Matthew (2017). "The Mindfulness Movement: How a Buddhist Practice Evolved into a Scientific Approach to Life". Skeptical Inquirer. 41 (3): 24–26. Archived from the original on 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  59. ^ Komaroff A (March 31, 2014). "Does "mindfulness meditation" really help relieve stress and anxiety?". Ask Doctor K. Harvard Health Publications. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  60. ^ Wilson J (2014). Mindful America: The Mutual Transformation of Buddhist Meditation and American Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 35.
  61. ^ "Body Scan Meditation — Mindful". mindful.stanford.edu.
  62. ^ "Body Scan Meditation (Greater Good in Action)". ggia.berkeley.edu.
  63. ^ Gunaratana B (2011). Mindfulness in plain English (PDF). Boston: Wisdom Publications. p. 21. ISBN 978-0861719068. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  64. ^ "History of MBSR". University of Massachusetts Medical School. November 17, 2016.
  65. ^ Ihnen A, Flynn C (2008). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Mindfulness. Penguin.
  66. ^ Teasdale JD, Segal ZV (2007). The Mindful Way Through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press.
  67. ^ Stanszus LS, Frank P, Geiger SM (October 2019). "Healthy eating and sustainable nutrition through mindfulness? Mixed method results of a controlled intervention study". Appetite. 141: 104325. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2019.104325. PMID 31228507. S2CID 195063688.
  68. ^ Pickert K (February 2014). "The art of being mindful. Finding peace in a stressed-out, digitally dependent culture may just be a matter of thinking differently". Time. 183 (4): 40–6. PMID 24640415.
  69. ^ Wilson J (2014). Mindful America: The Mutual Transformation of Buddhist Meditation and American Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 35.
  70. ^ Mahāsi Sayādaw, Manual of Insight, Chapter 5
  71. ^ Mahasi Sayadaw, Practical Vipassana Instructions, pp. 22–27
  72. ^ "The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation". Dhamma.org. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
  73. ^ Karunamuni N, Weerasekera R (2019). "Theoretical Foundations to Guide Mindfulness Meditation: A Path to Wisdom". Current Psychology. 38 (3): 627–646. doi:10.1007/s12144-017-9631-7. S2CID 149024504.
  74. ^ Karunamuni ND (2015). "The Five-Aggregate Model of the Mind". SAGE Open. 5 (2): 215824401558386. doi:10.1177/2158244015583860.
  75. ^ Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD (2007). "Mindfulness: Theoretical Foundations and Evidence for its Salutary Effects". Psychological Inquiry. 18 (4): 211–37. doi:10.1080/10478400701598298. S2CID 2755919.
  76. ^ Sharf R (2014). "Mindfulness and Mindlessness in Early Chan". Philosophy East and West. 64 (4): 933–64. doi:10.1353/pew.2014.0074. S2CID 144208166.
  77. ^ Levman, Bryan (2017). "Putting smṛti back into sati (Putting remembrance back into mindfulness)". Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies. 13: 121 at 122.
  78. ^ Sharf R (2014). "Mindfulness and Mindlessness in Early Chan". Philosophy East and West. 64 (4): 933–64. doi:10.1353/pew.2014.0074. S2CID 144208166.
  79. ^ Sharf R (2014). "Mindfulness and Mindlessness in Early Chan". Philosophy East and West. 64 (4): 933–64. doi:10.1353/pew.2014.0074. S2CID 144208166.
  80. ^ Sharf R (2014). "Mindfulness and Mindlessness in Early Chan". Philosophy East and West. 64 (4): 933–64. doi:10.1353/pew.2014.0074. S2CID 144208166.
  81. ^ Quotes from Gethin, Rupert M.L. (1992), The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiȳa Dhammā. Brill's Indological Library, 7. Leiden and New York: Brill
  82. ^ Sharf R (2014). "Mindfulness and Mindlessness in Early Chan". Philosophy East and West. 64 (4): 933–64. doi:10.1353/pew.2014.0074. S2CID 144208166.
  83. ^ "Is Mindfulness Present-Centered and Nonjudgmental? A Discussion of the Cognitive Dimensions of Mindfulness" by Georges Dreyfus
  84. ^ "Geoffrey Samuel Transcultural Psychiatry"
  85. ^ "Mindfulness and Ethics: Attention, Virtue and Perfection" by Jay Garfield
  86. ^ Davids TR (1881). Buddhist Suttas. Clarendon Press. p. 107. OCLC 13247398.
  87. ^ Gogerly, D.J. (1845). "On Buddhism". Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1: 7–28.
  88. ^ Davids TR (1881). Buddhist Suttas. Clarendon Press. p. 145. OCLC 13247398.
  89. ^ "Lecture, Stanford University Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education". The Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education. 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-11-20.
  90. ^ "Translator for the Buddha: An Interview with Bhikkhu Bodhi". www.inquiringmind.com. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  91. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., 2002