^[a] Christmas Humphreys. Exploring Buddhism. Routledge. 2012: 42–43. ISBN 978-1-136-22877-3. [b] Brian Morris. Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge University Press. 2006: 51. ISBN 978-0-521-85241-8., Quote: "...anatta is the doctrine of non-self, and is an extreme empiricist doctrine that holds that the notion of an unchanging permanent self is a fiction and has no reality. According to Buddhist doctrine, the individual person consists of five skandhas or heaps—the body, feelings, perceptions, impulses and consciousness. The belief in a self or soul, over these five skandhas, is illusory and the cause of suffering." [c] Richard Gombrich. Theravada Buddhism. Routledge. 2006: 47. ISBN 978-1-134-90352-8., Quote: "...Buddha's teaching that beings have no soul, no abiding essence. This 'no-soul doctrine' (anatta-vada) he expounded in his second sermon."