Dietary supplements and specialized diets are sometimes used by people with ADHD with the intent to mitigate some or all of the symptoms. However a 2009 article in the Harvard Mental Health Letter states, "Although vitamin or mineral supplements [micronutrients] may help children diagnosed with particular deficiencies, there is no evidence that they are helpful for all children with ADHD. Furthermore, megadoses of vitamins, which can be toxic, must be avoided." In the United States, no dietary supplement has been approved for the treatment for ADHD by the FDA.
Some popular supplements used to manage ADHD symptoms:
Caffeine – ADHD is associated with increased caffeine consumption, and caffeine's stimulant effects on cognition may have some benefits for ADHD. Limited evidence suggests a small therapeutic effect that is markedly inferior to standard treatments like methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine while still producing similar or greater side effects.
Nicotine – The association between ADHD and nicotine intake is well known, and limited evidence suggests that nicotine may help improve some of the symptoms of ADHD, although the effect is generally small.
Omega-3 fatty acids – A 2012 Cochrane review found little evidence that supplementation with omega-3 or other polyunsaturated fatty acids provides any improvement in the symptoms of ADHD in children or adolescents. A 2011 meta analysis found a "small but significant benefit", with benefits being "modest compared to the efficacy of currently available pharmacological treatments for ADHD". The review concluded that supplementation may be worth consideration as an augmentative treatment in combination with medication due to its "relatively benign side-effect profile", but not as a primary treatment. Most research on Omega-3 fatty acids is considered to be of very poor quality with widespread methodological weaknesses.
Zinc – Although the role of zinc in ADHD has not been elucidated, there is a small amount of limited evidence that lower tissue zinc levels may be associated with ADHD. In the absence of a demonstrated zinc deficiency (which is rare outside of developing countries), zinc supplementation is not recommended as a treatment option for ADHD.
In the 1980s vitamin B6 was promoted as a helpful remedy for children with learning difficulties including inattentiveness; however, a study of large doses of vitamins with ADHD children showed that they were ineffective in changing behavior.
^Rojas, Neal L.; Chan, Eugenia. Old and new controversies in the alternative treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews (Wiley). 2005, 11 (2): 116–130. ISSN 1080-4013. PMID 15977318. doi:10.1002/mrdd.20064.
In some cases, a special diet of foods without artificial flavors or colors works for a child, because the family and the child interact in a different way when the child eliminates these foods. These changes, not the diet itself, may improve the behavior and activity level.
Refined (processed) sugars may have some effect on children's activity. Refined sugars and carbohydrates enter the bloodstream quickly. Therefore, they cause rapid changes in blood sugar levels. This may make a child become more active.
Several studies have shown a link between artificial colorings and hyperactivity. On the other hand, other studies do not show any effect. This issue is yet to be decided.参数|quote=值左起第7位存在換行符 (帮助)
^Kanarek, RB. Does sucrose or aspartame cause hyperactivity in children?. Nutrition reviews. 1994, 52 (5): 173–5. ISSN 0029-6643. PMID 8052458.
^Krummel, Debra A.; Seligson, Frances H.; Guthrie, Helen A.; Gans, Dian A. Hyperactivity: Is candy causal?. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (Informa UK Limited). 1996, 36 (1-2): 31–47. ISSN 1040-8398. doi:10.1080/10408399609527717.
^Wolraich, Mark L. The Effect of Sugar on Behavior or Cognition in Children. JAMA (American Medical Association (AMA)). 1995-11-22, 274 (20): 1617. ISSN 0098-7484. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530200053037. The meta-analytic synthesis of the studies to date found that sugar does not affect the behavior or cognitive performance of children. The strong belief of parents may be due to expectancy and common association. However, a small effect of sugar or effects on subsets of children cannot be ruled out.(JAMA. 1995;274:1617-1621)
A diet high in sugar is a major cause of tooth decay.
High-sugar foods tend to have fewer vitamins and minerals. These foods may replace foods with more nutrition. High-sugar foods also have extra calories that can lead to obesity.
Some people have allergies to dyes and flavors. If a child has a diagnosed allergy, talk to a dietitian.
Add fiber to your child's diet to keep blood sugar levels more even. For breakfast, fiber is found in oatmeal, shredded wheat, berries, bananas, whole-grain pancakes. For lunch, fiber is found in whole-grain breads, peaches, grapes, and other fresh fruits.
Provide "quiet time" so that children can learn to calm themselves at home.
Talk to your health care provider if your child cannot sit still when other children of his or her age can, or cannot control impulses.参数|quote=值左起第16位存在換行符 (帮助)
^Rucklidge, Julia J.; Johnstone, Jeanette; Gorman, Brigette; Boggis, Anna; Frampton, Christopher M. Moderators of treatment response in adults with ADHD treated with a vitamin–mineral supplement. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry (Elsevier BV). 2014-04-03, 50: 163–171. ISSN 0278-5846. PMID 24374068. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.12.014.
Helen Briggs. Vitamins ‘effective in treating ADHD symptoms’. BBC News. 2014-01-30 [2017-04-13]. （原始内容存档于2017-04-14）. After eight weeks of treatment those on supplements reported greater improvements in both their inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity compared with those taking the placebo. "Our study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness for micronutrients in the treatment of ADHD symptoms in adults," said Prof Julia Rucklidge, who led the study.
^Rucklidge, Julia J.; Eggleston, Matthew J.F.; Johnstone, Jeanette M.; Darling, Kathryn; Frampton, Chris M. Vitamin-mineral treatment improves aggression and emotional regulation in children with ADHD: a fully blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines (Wiley). 2017-10-02, 59 (3): 232–246. ISSN 0021-9630. PMID 28967099. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12817.请检查|year= / |date= mismatch中的日期值 (帮助)
^ 25.025.1Ioannidis, K; Chamberlain, SR; Müller, U. Ostracising caffeine from the pharmacological arsenal for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder—was this a correct decision? A literature review. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). September 2014, 28 (9): 830–6. PMID 24989644. doi:10.1177/0269881114541014.
^Toledano A, Alvarez MI, Toledano-Díaz A. Diversity and variability of the effects of nicotine on different cortical regions of the brain – therapeutic and toxicological implications. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. September 2010, 10 (3): 180–206. PMID 20528766. doi:10.2174/1871524911006030180. hdl:10261/61750.