衝動 (心理學)

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以不同顏色顯示之部分為腦部之眶額葉皮層,是前額葉皮層的一部分,被相關研究認定與個人決策的形成有關。

心理學中,衝動是一種純粹跟隨慾望等做出行為的傾向,表現出的行為特徵是很少或根本沒有預先計畫、反思或考慮後果。[1] 衝動行為通常是“構思不當、表達過早、風險過大,或不適合且通常會導致不良後果的情況”[2],這會危及長期目標和成功戰略。[3] 衝動可以歸類為多因素結構[4] 也有一種功能性的衝動,即在適當的情況下沒有經過深思熟慮的行動,可以而且確實會導致理想的結果。 “當這種行為產生積極的結果時,它們往往不被視為衝動的跡象,而是作為大膽(英語:Boldness)、敏捷、自發性、勇敢或不受常規約束的指標”。[2][5] 因此,衝動的構成至少包括兩個獨立的組成部分:首先,在沒有適當考慮的情況下採取行動[2],可能會或可能不會起作用;第二,選擇短期收益而不是長期收益[6]

衝動既是人格的一個方面,也是各種心理障礙的主要組成部分,包括胎兒酒精譜系障礙注意力不足過動症[7]物質使用障礙[8][9]雙相情感障礙[10]反社會人格障礙[11]邊緣型人格障礙[12]。在後天腦損傷(英語:Acquired brain injury)[13]神經退行性疾​​病[14]的情況下,也注意到了異常的衝動模式。神經生物學研究結果表明,衝動行為涉及特定的大腦區域[15][16][17],儘管不同的大腦網絡可能導致不同的衝動表現[18],並且遺傳可能發揮作用。[19]

許多行動同時包含衝動性和強迫性特徵,但衝動性和強迫性在功能上是不同的。衝動性和強迫性是相互關聯的,因為它們都表現出過早或未經深思熟慮的行為傾向,並且通常會產生負面結果。[20][21] 強迫性可能是一個連續統一體,一方面是強迫性,另一方面是衝動性,但在這一點上的研究是相矛盾的。[22] 強迫性是對感知到的風險或威脅的反應,而衝動是對感知到的直接收益或利益的反應[20],並且,強迫性涉及重複的行為,而衝動性涉及無計劃的反應。

衝動是賭博酒精成癮的共同特徵。研究表明擁有此類成癮情況的人,擁有比沒有此類成癮情況的人更高的延遲付款貼現比率;此類成癮情況亦會導致貼現行為的累加效應(英語:additive effects)。[23]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

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