元素氧化態列表

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元素氧化態列表列出化學元素的所有已知整數氧化態,常見氧化態以粗體標記,所有元素單質氧化態為零。

該列表主要參考《元素化學》(Chemistry of the Elements[1],顯示出元素周期律在元素價態上的一些趨勢。

−1 H +1
He
−1 Li +1
Be +2
-1 B +1 +2 +3 [2]
−4 −3 −2 −1 C +1 +2 +3 +4
−3 −2 −1 N +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
−2 −1 O +1 +2
−1 F
Ne
−1 Na +1
Mg +1 +2 [3]
Al +1 +3
−4 −3 −2 −1 Si +1 +2 +3 +4
−3 −2 −1 P +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
−2 −1 S +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
−1 Cl +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
Ar
K +1
Ca +2
Sc +1 +2 +3
−1 Ti +2 +3 +4
−1 V +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
−2 −1 Cr +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
−3 −2 −1 Mn +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
−2 −1 Fe +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
−1 Co +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
−1 Ni +1 +2 +3 +4
Cu +1 +2 +3 +4
Zn +1 +2 [4]
Ga +1 +2 +3
−4 Ge +1 +2 +3 +4
−3 As +2 +3 +5
−2 Se +2 +4 +6
−1 Br +1 +3 +4 +5 +7
Kr +2
Rb +1
Sr +2
Y +1 +2 +3

[5][6]

Zr +1 +2 +3 +4
−1 Nb +2 +3 +4 +5
−2 −1 Mo +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
−3 −1 Tc +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
−2 Ru +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8
−1 Rh +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
Pd +2 +4
Ag +1 +2 +3
Cd +2
In +1 +2 +3
−4 Sn +2 +4
−3 Sb +3 +5
−2 Te +2 +4 +5 +6
−1 I +1 +3 +5 +7
Xe +2 +4 +6 +8
Cs +1
Ba +2
La +2 +3
Ce +2 +3 +4
Pr +2 +3 +4
Nd +2 +3
Pm +3
Sm +2 +3
Eu +2 +3
Gd +1 +2 +3
Tb +1 +3 +4
Dy +2 +3
Ho +3
Er +3
Tm +2 +3
Yb +2 +3
Lu +3
Hf +2 +3 +4
−1 Ta +2 +3 +4 +5
−2 −1 W +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
−3 −1 Re +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
−2 Os +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8
-3 −1 Ir +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +8 [7][8]
Pt +2 +4 +5 +6
−1 Au +1 +2 +3 +5
Hg +1 +2 +4 [9]
Tl +1 +3
−4 Pb +2 +4
−3 Bi +3 +5
−2 Po +2 +4 +6
−1 At +1 +3 +5 +7
Rn +2 [10]
Fr +1
Ra +2
Ac +3
Th +2 +3 +4
Pa +3 +4 +5
U +3 +4 +5 +6
Np +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
Pu +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
Am +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
Cm +3 +4
Bk +3 +4
Cf +2 +3 +4
Es +2 +3
Fm +2 +3
Md +2 +3
No +2 +3
Lr +3
Rf +4

下圖是歐文·朗繆爾1919年在研究八隅體規則時所畫:[11]

Langmuir valence.png

參考資料[編輯]

  1. ^ Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition, Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4, p. 28.
  2. ^ 超導材料二硼化鎂中硼的氧化態是-1。
  3. ^ 含有Mg(I)的低價鎂化合物已經用大配體製得,參見:Green, S. P.; Jones C.; Stasch A. Stable Magnesium(I) Compounds with Mg-Mg Bonds. Science. December 2007, 318 (5857): 1754–1757. PMID 17991827. doi:10.1126/science.1150856. 
  4. ^ Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils;. Zink. Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie 91–100. Walter de Gruyter. 1985: 1034–1041. ISBN 3-11-007511-3 (德文). 
  5. ^ Yttrium: yttrium(II) hydride compound data. WebElements.com. [2007-12-10]. 
  6. ^ Yttrium: yttrium(I) bromide compound data. OpenMOPAC.net. [2007-12-10]. (原始內容存檔於2011-07-23). 
  7. ^ Ir(-III)存在於Ir(CO)33−中,參見Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. Chemistry of the Elements 2nd. Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. 1997. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4. 
  8. ^ Ir(VIII)存在於四氧化銥中,參見Gong, Yu; Zhou, Mingfei, Kaupp, Martin, Riedel, Sebastian. Formation and Characterization of the Iridium Tetroxide Molecule with Iridium in the Oxidation State +VIII. Angewandte Chemie. 2009-10-04, 121 (42): 8019–8023. doi:10.1002/ange.200902733. 
  9. ^ Hg(IV)存在於四氟化汞中,參見Xuefang Wang; Lester Andrews; Sebastian Riedel; and Martin Kaupp. Mercury Is a Transition Metal: The First Experimental Evidence for HgF4.. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46 (44): 8371–8375. doi:10.1002/anie.200703710. 
  10. ^ Rn2+存在於二氟化氡中,參見Stein, L. Ionic Radon Solution. Science. 1970, 168: 362. doi:10.1126/science.168.3929.362. Kenneth S. Pitzer. Fluorides of radon and element 118. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun.,. 1975: 760b – 761. doi:10.1039/C3975000760b. 
  11. ^ Irving Langmuir. The arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1919, 41, 868-934. doi:10.1021/ja02227a002