恆星光度列表

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下面的恆星列表是依據恆星的絕對熱星等增加(發光度減弱)的順序排列。絕對星等是恆星在距離地球10秒差距所呈現的視星等。絕對熱星等是測量恆星的發光度–一顆恆星每秒鐘所輻射的總能量。

這個表并不十分完整,因為一顆恆星的距離如果遠到我們看不到它,我們就無從得知它的發光度。
一些參考資料所給的恆星發光度非常的不一樣(不同的順序或不同的恆星),這些恆星的不同數據資料有些不見得是不可靠,而是注意的和分析時注重的物理資訊不同和有實際上的困難。

恒星名称 辐射热光度
(太阳光度=1)
绝对热星等
距太阳系距离
(光年)
视星等 有效温度 (K)
R136a1 (在大麦哲伦星系) 8,710,000 −12.5 163,000 12.23 53,000±3,000
Melnick 34 (BAT99-116)(在大麦哲伦星系) 7,079,000 −11.9[1] 160,000 13.10 53,000
M33-013406.63 (在三角座星系) 6,400,000-10,280,000 −12.2 到 −12.7[2] 2,380,000-3,070,000 16.1
WR 25 (在船底座星云) 6,300,000 −12.16[3] 7,500 8.80 50,100 / ?
NGC 2363-V1 6,300,000 −12.16[4][5] 11,100,000 17.88 13,000-26,000
R136c (在大麦哲伦星系) 5,623,000 −12.0 160,000 12.86 51,000
海山二 (在船底座星云) 5,000,000 −12.0[6] 7,500 −0.8 到 7.9[7] 37,200
BAT99-98 (AB12)(在大麦哲伦星系) 5,000,000 −12.0[8] 165,000 13.70 45,000
G0.238-0.071 5,000,000 −12.0[9] 26,000
HD 38282 (R144)(在大麦哲伦星系) 4,500,000 −11.9[10] 160,000 11.11 47,000
R136a2 (在大麦哲伦星系) 4,266,000 −11.7 160,000 12.34 53,000
人马座V4998 (在五合星团附近) 4,000,000 −11.7[11] 25,000 12,000
R136a3 (在大麦哲伦星系) 3,802,000 −11.6 160,000 12.97 53,000
R136a6 (在大麦哲伦星系) 3,311,000 −11.5 165,000 13.35
G0.070+0.025 3,300,000 −11.5[9] 26,000
Var A-1 (在仙女座星系) 3,200,000 −11.5[12] 2,450,000 17.143[13] 20,400-28,100[12]
WR 102ka(牡丹星) 3,200,000 −11.5 26,100 25,100
VFTS 682 (在大麦哲伦星系) 3,200,000 −11.5 160,000 16.1 52,210±2,500
WR 42e 3,200,000 −11.5 25,000 14.53 43,652
BAT99-33 (R99)(在大麦哲伦星系) 3,200,000 −11.4[8] 160,000 11.45 28,000
LSS 4067 3,000,000 −11.4[14] 8,200 11.64 32,800
NGC 3603-B 2,900,000 −11.3[1] 24,000 11.33 42,000
G0.059-0.068 2,880,000 −11.4[9] 26,000
R136a4 (在大麦哲伦星系) 2,884,000 −11.3 160,000 13.96 51,000±6,000[1]
WR 102hb 2,600,000 −11.3[15] 26,000 25,100
AFGL 2298 2,500,000 −11.25[4] 33,000
Melnick 42 (在大麦哲伦星系) 2,500,000 −11.25 160,000 12.8 47,300
QPM-241 2,500,000 −11.25[15] 26,000 25,100
天蝎座V915 2,500,000 −11.25[3] 15,300 10.03 50,100[3]
BAT99-117 (R146)(在大麦哲伦星系) 2,500,000 −11.2[8] 160,000 13.116
NGC 3603-A1a 2,500,000 −11.2[1] 24,000 11.18(综合A1a和A1b) 42,000
LHO 146 2,500,000 −11.2 26,000 8.7 ~35,000
Var 83 (在三角座星系) 2,240,000 −11.1[16] 3,000,000 16.40 18,000-37,000
WR 158 2,200,000 −11.1[3] 26,000 11.24 44,700[3]
圆拱星团-F6 2,300,000 −11.1 25,000 33,900
圆拱星团-F9 2,300,000 −11.1 25,000 36,600
HD 5980A (在小麦哲伦星系) 2,200,000 −11.1[17] 200,000 11.7 21,000-53,000
WR 24 (在船底座星云) 2,200,000 −11.1[3] 8,200 6.48 50,100
HD 269810 (在大麦哲伦星系) 2,200,000 −11.1[18] 170,000 12.28 52,500
天鹅座OB2-516 2,200,000 −11.1 5,000 11.84[19]
BAT99-96 (在大麦哲伦星系) 2,200,000 −11.1[8] 160,000 13.76
G0.058+0.014 2,140,000 −11.1[9] 26,000
R136a5 (在大麦哲伦星系) 2,089,000 −11.0 165,000 13.71 ~50,000[1]
LBV 1806-20 2,000,000 −11.0 38,700 18,000-32,000
圆拱星团-F4 2,000,000 −11.0 25,000 36,800
WR 82 2,000,000 −11.0[3] 17,200 11.55 56,200[3]
WR 131 2,000,000 −11.0[3] 38,600 12.08 44,700[3]
WR 147 2,000,000 −11.0[3] 2,100 14.89 39,800[3]
圆拱星团-F7 2,000,000 −11.0 25,000 32,900
圆拱星团-F1 2,000,000 −11.0 25,000 33,200
HD 92740 A (船底座V429)(在船底座星云) 2,000,000 −11.0 8,200 6.42 44,700
R136b (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,995,000 −11.0 165,000 13.24 41,000
G0.114+0.021 1,950,000 −11.0[9] 26,000
R136a8 (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,905,000 −10.9 165,000 14.42 51,000[1]
天鹅座OB2 #12 1,900,000 −10.9[20] 5,000 11.4 13,700
WR 31a 1,820,000 −10.9 26,000 10.85 30,200
Wray 17-96 1,800,000 −10.9[21] 15,000 17.8 13,000
天鹅座V2180 (WR 130) 1,800,000 −10.9[3] 8,800 12.14 44,700
HD 5980B (在小麦哲伦星系) 1,800,000 −10.9[17] 200,000 11.9 45,000
人马座V4650 1,800,000 −10.9[22] 25,000 11,300
VFTS 506 (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,750,000 −10.9[23] 160,000 13.31 55,000[24]
VFTS 16 (大麦哲伦星系) 1,700,000 −10.8[23] 160,000 13.55
天鹅座OB2 #7 1,700,000 −10.8 5,000 12.7
BAT99-122 (R147)(在大麦哲伦星系) 1,700,000 −10.7[8] 160,000 12.75
圆拱星团-F12 1,600,000 −10.8 25,000 36,900
仙女座AF (在仙女座星系) 1,600,000 −10.8[16] 2,500,000 17.325[13] 28,000
LHO 110 1,600,000 −10.8[15] 26,000 25,100
WR 12 (船帆座V378) 1,600,000 −10.75[3] 16,500 10.78 44,700
手枪星 1,600,000 −10.75 25,000 11,800
WR 78 1,600,000 −10.75[3] 6,500 6.49 50,100
WR 89 1,600,000 −10.75[3] 9,400 11.02 39,800
WR 107 1,600,000 −10.75[3] 13,400 14.1 50,100
WR 148 1,600,000 −10.75[3] 27,100 10.3 39,800
HD 93129A (在船底座星云) 1,500,000 −11.25 7,500 7.310 42,500
WR 102i 1,500,000 −10.7[15] 26,000 31,600
NGC 3603-A1b 1,500,000 −10.6[1] 24,000 11.18(综合A1a和A1b) 40,000
VFTS 621 (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,400,000 −10.6[23] 160,000 15.39 54,000[24]
圆拱星团-F15 1,400,000 −10.6 25,000 35,600
LHO 100 1,400,000 −10.6 26,000 9.4 35,000
AB8A (在小麦哲伦星系) 1,400,000 −10.6[17] 200,000 12.9 (综合) 141,000
船底座V396 (WR 16) 1,400,000 −10.6[3] 7,300[25] 8.34 41,700±1,000[26]
WR 108 1,400,000 −10.6[3] 18,300 9.89 39,800
WR 66 1,400,000 −10.6[3] 10,700 11.34 44,700
天鹅座OB2-771 1,400,000 −10.6 5,000
R126 (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,400,000 −10.6 160,000 10.91 22,500
天鹅座V729 A 1,400,000 −10.6 5,000
BAT99-100 (R134)(在大麦哲伦星系) 1,400,000 −10.5[8] 160,000 12.02 47,000[8]
Tr 27-27 1,350,000 −10.5[14] 8,200
WR 87 1,300,000 −10.5[3] 9,400 11.95 44,700
圆拱星团-F3 1,300,000 −10.5 25,000 29,600
圆拱星团-F8 1,300,000 −10.5 25,000 32,900
R139 A (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,300,000 −10.5[27] 160,000 12.0 (综合)
天鹅座V729 B 1,300,000 −10.5 5,000
HD 50064 1,300,000 −10.5[28] 9,500 8.21 13,500
VFTS 259 (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,250,000 −10.5[23] 160,000 13.65
WR 102d 1,200,000 −10.4 26,000 10.5 35,100
LHO 77 1,200,000 −10.4 26,000 9.6 35,000
AB7A 1,200,000 −10.4 197,000 13.016 105,000
圆拱星团-F28 1,200,000 −10.4 25,000 39,600
G0.121-0.099 1,150,000 −10.4[9] 26,000
BAT99-104 (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,100,000 −10.4[8] 160,000 12.5 63,000[8]
船底座V385 (WR 40)(在船底座星云) 1,100,000 −10.4[3] 7,400 7.85 45,000±1,000[26]
天鹰座V1402 (WR 123) 1,100,000 −10.4[3] 19,500 11.1 44,700
圆拱星团-F18 1,100,000 −10.4 25,000
天鹅座OB2 #8B 1,100,000 −10.4 5,000 12.7 39,200
天鹅座OB2 #10 1,100,000 −10.4 5,000 12.7
天鹅座OB2 #22 1,100,000 −10.4 5,000 12.7
Var B (在三角座星系) 1,100,000 −10.4[16] 3,000,000 16.208[13]
HD 93403A 1,050,000 10,000 7.3 39,300
天鹅座68 A 1,050,000 −10.3[29] 4,600 4.98 到 5.09 34,000
HD 93250 (在船底座星云) 1,038,978 −10.3[14] 7,500 7.50 46,000
BAT99-94 (R135)(在大麦哲伦星系) 1,000,000 −10.3[30] 160,000 14.52 141,000[8]
船底座AG 1,000,000 −10.3[31] 6,000 5.7 到 9.0 8,000-26,000
HD 229059 1,000,000 −10.3[14] 3,200[32] 8.70 26,300[14]
圆拱星团-F2 1,000,000 −10.25 25,000 33,500
BAT99-68 (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,000,000 −10.25[8] 160,000 12.4 45,000[8]
圆拱星团-F14 1,000,000 −10.25 25,000 34,500
盾牌座V460 (WR 116) 1,000,000 −10.25[3] 8,100 13.38 39,800
WR 124 (天箭座QR) 1,000,000 −10.25[3] 11,000 11.5 35,900
剑鱼座S (在大麦哲伦星系) 1,000,000 −10.25 169,000 8.6 到 11.5 8,500-35,000
下表列出了一些肉眼可见的恒星,以便进行比较
天鹅座P(天津增九) 610,000 −9.7 5,900 4.8 18,700
船尾座ζ(弧矢增二十二) 550,000-800,000 −9.0 1,090 2.21 40,000-44,000
仙王座RW 550,000 −9.11 11,500 6.52 4,015
仙后座ρ(螣蛇十二) ~500,000 −9.6 12,000 4.1 到 6.2 5,777-7,200
猎户座ε(参宿二) 389,000-832,000 −9.2 1,300 1.70 27,000
仙王座μ(造父四/石榴石星) 283,000 −9.08 1,900 4.04 3,750
大犬座VY ~270,000 −9.4[33] 4,900 6.5 到 9.6 3,490±90
普拉斯基特星 A 224,000 −8.6 6,600 6.06(综合A和B) 33,500±2,000
獵戶座θ1C(伐增二) 204,000 −8.6 1,500 5.13 39,000±1,000
仙王座VV A 200,000 −9.0 2,400 4.91 3,826
天鹅座α(天津四) 196,000 −8.38[34] 2,600 1.25 8,525±75
猎户座α(参宿四) 126,000 −8.00[35] 643 0.58 3,590
猎户座β(参宿七) 120,000 −7.84 860 0.12 12,100±150
天蝎座α(心宿二) 97,000 −7.2 600 0.92 3,570
船底座α(老人星) 15,100 −5.53 310 −0.74 6,998
猎户座γ(参宿五) 9,211 −2.64 250 1.64 22,000
小熊座α(勾陈一) Aa 1,260 −3.6 433 1.97 6,015
金牛座α(毕宿五) 518 −0.63 65 0.85 3,910
牧夫座α(大角星) 170 −0.31 37 −0.04 4,286±30
御夫座α(五车二) Aa 78.7 0.4 42 0.08 4,970±50
天琴座α(织女一) 40.12 0.58 25 0.00 9,602±180
大犬座α(天狼星) A 25.4 1.4 8.6 −1.46 9,940
半人马座α(南门二) A 1.519 4.38 4.4 −0.01 5,790
太阳 1.00 4.83 0 −26.74 5,772


要注意的是即使是最明亮的恆星(比太陽明亮四千萬倍)仍然不如像是類星體,目前已經發現了數百個,這種銀河系外的天體明亮。現在所知最亮的類星體是在室女座3C 273,它的平均視星等是12.8等(使用望遠鏡才能看見),但是絕對星等是-26.7等。如果它在距離地球10秒差距的位置上,看起來將如同太陽(視星等-26.8)一般的明亮,因此類星體的發光度是太陽的2兆(1012)倍,或是像我們銀河系這樣的巨型星系總亮度的100倍。然而也發現類星體的光度在不同的時間週期內也不一樣。

根據伽馬射線的觀察,一顆被稱為SGR 1806-20磁星中子星的一種類型),曾經在2004年12月27日將極端強烈的爆發傳達到地球。它是來自太陽系外對我們的行星造成最明亮的衝擊事件。如果伽馬射線能夠看見,它的光度將達到−29,會比我們的太陽還要明亮(如同雨燕衛星所觀測到的)

在1998年偵測到的伽馬射線暴GRB 971214在當時被認為是宇宙間最巨大的能量事件,等同於數百顆超新星釋出的能量。稍後的研究指出因為幾何的關係射向地球的能量或許相當於一顆超新星將環繞在周圍氣體的總能量集成光束射向地球。

參見[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]

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