普京主義

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

普京主義」(俄語путинизм)是西方和俄羅斯分析家有時會使用術語,以描述弗拉基米尔·普京的意識形態特徵。這個詞語出現時往往有消極的含義[1][2][3][4][5][6]。在普京擔任俄羅斯總統和普京俄羅斯總理期間,西罗维基(俄语:силовики́)控制大部分的政治和財政權力[7][8][9]

社會和經濟[编辑]

鮑里斯·涅姆佐夫作出的報告及一些其他說法指,經濟自由主義、缺乏透明度、任人唯親腐敗是普京政治制度的特點之一[10][11][12][13][14][15]。在1999年至2008年秋季,俄羅斯經濟正以穩定的步伐增長[16],一些專家將其歸因於1998年的盧布貶值、葉利欽年代的結構性改革、油價上漲和西方銀行廉價信貸[17][18][19]邁克爾·麥克福爾在2004年6月曾指出俄羅斯“令人印象深刻”的短期經濟增長是同時附隨“對媒體自由的破壞、對民間社會的威脅和影響正義的腐敗”[20]

普京在兩次總統任內,簽署一系列自由經濟改革的法律,如降低利潤稅、實施新的土地法和新版民法典[21];在此期間,俄羅斯貧窮人口減少了一半以上[22][23]實際國內生產總值亦迅速增長[24]

外交[编辑]

在外交事務中,普京政權試圖據稱仿效前蘇聯的偉大、好戰和擴張主義[25][26];在2007年11月,衛報西蒙·蒂斯代爾指出,正如俄羅斯曾經向外出口馬克思主義,她現在會可能向國際市場推銷普京主義,因為很多時候本能地不民主、寡頭政治和腐敗的國家會認為民主、議會和多元化的幌子比真實的一面更具吸引力和更易管理[27]

評價[编辑]

美國經濟學家理查德·W·拉恩英语Richard W. Rahn在2007年9月指普京主義為“俄羅斯政府的民族主義獨裁,偽裝成一個民主的自由市場”,這“比共產主義更接近法西斯主義[8],而普京主義令俄羅斯的經濟迅速增長,使大多數人因生活水平提高而願意忍受的“軟鎮壓”[28],他更預測隨著俄羅斯經濟的命運改變,普京主義會更鎮壓民眾[28]

一名俄羅斯歷史學家曾指,如果民主是由多數人統治,保護少數人的權利和機會,目前的政治體制至少在形式上可以說是民主的。俄羅斯存在多黨政治體系中,反對派在國家杜馬有席位[28]

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ One of the first recorded usage of the term: William Safire. Putinism Looms. New York Times. December 31, 2000 [2008-12-26]. 
  2. ^ The Perils of Putinism 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-09-29., By Arnold Beichman, Washington Times, February 11, 2007
  3. ^ Putinism On the March, by George F. Will, Washington Post, November 30, 2004
  4. ^ The West must start to hit Russia where it hurts – in the roubles, Simon Heffer, Telegraph (U.K.): "Few in the outside world were enthused in an election that was stage-managed through the constructs of electoral machinery that thrived on exclusivism and partisan majoritarianism, to make sure that former President Putin's hand-picked successor was elected. And, it was. Medvedev was a vehicle for institutionalizing Putinism – a draconian authoritarianism and xenophobic foreign policy – in Russia. It worked for Putin. And, the question became: Who will be calling the shots after Putin engineered his way back to behind-the-scene power, when he took the position of the prime minister?", retrieved 18-Jan-2009
  5. ^ Europe is skeptical facing the Russian presidentials Archive.is存檔,存档日期2012年7月31日,, euro|topics Spanish site, English language summary of Swedish press article in Expressen, quoting the article: "Whatever Putin is contemplating, Putinism will emerge as the victor in the upcoming transfer of power," writes the paper. "Well-staged events like the presidential election cannot belie the fact that it's been a while since Russia was a democracy. Yesterday, Amnesty International published a report that finds a dramatic drop in freedom of expression in Russia. Independent media have been silenced, the murder of journalists remains unexplained and police put down protests by the opposition. Today's Russia is led by gangs with close ties to the FSB security service.... The only pluralistic element in Russian politics is the conflict between these gangs. And the Russian people have no say in this power play.", retrieved 18-Jan-2009
  6. ^ The Market Will Punish Putinism. The Wall Street Journal. 3 September 2009 [2009-02-10]. (原始内容存档于8 一月 2009). 
  7. ^ Mission "intrusion" is complete! by Olga Kryshtanovskaya, 2004, Novaya Gazeta (in Russian)
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 From Communism to Putinism, by Richard W. Rahn, The Brussels Journal, 19 September 2007.
  9. ^ Russia: Putin May Go, But Can 'Putinism' Survive?, By Brian Whitmore, RFE/RL, August 29, 2007
  10. ^ Независимый экспертеый доклад «Путин. Итоги» Experts' report by Boris Nemtsov and Vladimir Milov released in February 2008.
  11. ^ За четыре года мздоимство в России выросло почти в десять раз (Bribe-taking in Russia has increased by nearly ten times) 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2009-01-23. Финансовые известия July 21, 2005.
  12. ^ Energy Revenues and Corruption Increase in Russia 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2008-12-20. Voice of America 13 July 2006.
  13. ^ Чума-2005: коррупция Argumenty i Fakty № 29 (1290) July 2005
  14. ^ Russia: Bribery Thriving Under Putin, According To New Report Radio Liberty July 22, 2005
  15. ^ Putin, the Kremlin power struggle and the $40bn fortune The Guardian Dec 21, 2007
  16. ^ Russian Economic Reports. Web.worldbank.org. [2014-03-24]. 
  17. ^ (俄文) Polukin, Alexey. К нефти легко примазаться. Novaya Gazeta. 10 January 2008 [2008-12-29]. (原始内容存档于2 一月 2009). 
  18. ^ Trouble in the pipeline. The Economist. 8 May 2008 [2008-11-26]. 
  19. ^ The flight from the rouble. The Economist. 20 November 2008 [2008-11-26]. 
  20. ^ The Putin Paradox by Michael McFaul June 24, 2004
  21. ^ McFaul, Michael. The Putin Paradox. Americanprogress.org. 2004-06-24 [2014-03-24]. 
  22. ^ Putin's Eight Years 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2009-01-06. Kommersant Retrieved on 4 May 2008
  23. ^ Russia’s economy under Vladimir Putin: achievements and failures RIA Novosti Retrieved on 1 May 2008
  24. ^ Putin visions new development plans for Russia China Economic Information Service Retrieved on 8 May 2008
  25. ^ Путинизм как лошадь Мюнхгаузена ej.ru by Dmitry Oreshkin, January 24, 2007.
  26. ^ Putin's Teflon Image Takes Hit. The Moscow Times. December 23, 2008 [2008-12-23]. (原始内容存档于十二月 25, 2008). 
  27. ^ Tisdall, Simon. Putinism could be the next Russian export. London: The Guardian. 21 November 2008 [2009-02-11]. 
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 28.2 Richard W. Rahn. Putinism. The Washington Times. 20 September 2008 [2009-02-11].