超文字小說(英語:Hypertext fiction)是使用超文本鏈接的一種電子文學英语Electronic literature體裁。可非線性的提供新的資訊。如同維基百科,可從文本的一個節點移動到下一個節點。其精神也可以在互動小說英语Interactive fiction看到。





艾斯班·艾瑟特英语Espen Aarseth而言,網絡文本本身並不是一種體裁[4]




該領域著名的[來源請求]先驅者是朱迪·馬洛伊英语Judy Malloy[5]邁克爾·喬伊斯英语Michael Joyce (writer)[6]


Douglas Cooper's Delirium (1994) was the first novel serialized on the World Wide Web; it permitted navigation between four parallel story strands. On June 21, 1996, Bobby Rabyd (aka Robert Arellano) published the World Wide Web's first interactive novel,[7] Sunshine 69, with navigable maps of settings, a nonlinear calendar of scenes, and a character "suitcase" enabling readers to try on nine different points of view. Shortly thereafter, in 1997, Mark Amerika released GRAMMATRON, a multi-linear work that was eventually exhibited in art galleries. In 2000, it was included in the Whitney Biennial of American Art.[8]

In the 1990s, women and feminist artists took advantage of hypertext and produced dozens of works. Linda Dement’s Cyberflesh Girlmonster a hypertext CD-ROM that incorporates images of women’s body parts and remixes them to create new shapes. Dr. Caitlin Fisher’s hypertext novella “‘These Waves of Girls“ is set in three time periods of the protagonist exploring polymorphous perversity enacted in her queer identity through memory. The story is written as a reflection diary of the interconnected memories of childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. It consists of an associated multi-modal collection of nodes includes linked text, still and moving images, manipulable images, animations, and sound clips. It won the Electronic Literature Organization award.

Some other web examples of hypertext fiction include Adrienne Eisen's Six Sex Scenes (1995), Stuart Moulthrop's Hegirascope (1995, 1997), The Unknown (which won the trAce(Alt X award in 1998), The Company Therapist (1996-1999) (which won Net Magazine's "Entertainment Site of the Year"), and Caitlin Fisher's These Waves of Girls (2001) (which won the ELO award for fiction in 2001). More recent works include Stephen Marche's "Lucy Hardin's Missing Period" (2010)[9] and Paul La Farge’s * Luminous Airplanes (2011).

The internationally oriented, but US based, Electronic Literature Organization (ELO) was founded in 1999 to promote the creation and enjoyment of electronic literature. Other organisations for the promotion of electronic literature include trAce Online Writing Community, a British organisation, started in 1995, that has fostered electronic literature in the UK, Dichtung Digital, a journal of criticism of electronic literature in English and German, and ELINOR, a network for electronic literature in the Nordic countries, which provides a directory of Nordic electronic literature. The Electronic Literature Directory lists many works of electronic literature in English and other languages.












  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Bolter, Jay David; Joyce, Michael. Hypertext and creative writing. Proceedings of the ACM conference on Hypertext (Association for Computing Machinery). 1987-11-01: 41–50 [2022-09-19]. doi:10.1145/317426.317431. (原始内容存档于2022-09-22). 
  2. ^ Yellowlees, Jane Douglas. The End of Books—or Books Without End?: Reading Interactive Narratives. University of Michigan Press. 2001: 3. ISBN 0472088467. 
  3. ^ Aarseth, Espen.1997. ergodic Literature. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. http://www.hf.uib.no/cybertext/Ergodic.html 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2000-12-16.
  4. ^ Bolter, Jay David, Degrees of Freedom, retrieved from http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/bolter_freedom.html页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆
  5. ^ Berens, K. I. Judy Malloy's seat at the (database) table: A feminist reception history of early hypertext literature. Literary and Linguistic Computing. 2014-09-01, 29 (3): 340–348. doi:10.1093/llc/fqu037. 
  6. ^ Joyce, Michael. Nonce Upon Some Times: Rereading Hypertext Fiction. MFS Modern Fiction Studies. 1997, 43 (3): 579–597. doi:10.1353/mfs.1997.0061. 
  7. ^ Ciccarello, Lisa. "Swiveling My Hips through the Interbunk (And Having a Great Time, Too)"页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆). Pif Magazine: January, 2000.
  8. ^ Artists Selected for the 2000 Whitney Biennial. [2022-08-02]. (原始内容存档于2016-03-15). 
  9. ^ Lucy Hardin's Missing Period | the Walrus. 11 November 2010 [2022-08-02]. (原始内容存档于2019-02-11). 
  10. ^ Why No One Clicked on the Great Hypertext Story页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) March 16, 2013