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釙的同位素

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有25个已知的同位素,都具有放射性,目前已觀測到的釙同位素質量數在186到227之間,其中有七個屬於天然放射性的痕量元素,當中以210
Po
最為穩定,但半衰期仍只有4個半月而已。

圖表[编辑]

符號 歷史
名稱
Z(p
[1][2]
N(n
[1][2]
同位素質量(u
[3]
半衰期
[3][4][5]
衰變
方式

[6][n 1]
衰變
產物

[n 2]
原子核
自旋
[3][4][5]
相對豐度
莫耳分率)
相對豐度
的變化量
莫耳分率)
激發能量
188Po 84 104 187.999422(21) 430(180) µs
[0.40(+20−15) ms]
0+
189Po 84 105 188.998481(24) 5(1) ms 3/2−#
190Po 84 106 189.995101(14) 2.46(5) ms α (99.9%) 186Pb 0+
β+ (.1%) 190Bi
191Po 84 107 190.994574(12) 22(1) ms α 187Pb 3/2−#
β+ (不常見) 191Bi
191mPo 130(21) keV 93(3) ms (13/2+)
192Po 84 108 191.991335(13) 32.2(3) ms α (99%) 188Pb 0+
β+ (1%) 192Bi
192mPo 2600(500)# keV ~1 µs 12+#
193Po 84 109 192.99103(4) 420(40) ms
[370(+46−40) ms]
α 189Pb 3/2−#
β+ (不常見) 193Bi
193mPo 100(30)# keV 240(10) ms
[243(+11−10) ms]
α 189Pb (13/2+)
β+ (不常見) 193Bi
194Po 84 110 193.988186(13) 0.392(4) s α 190Pb 0+
β+ (不常見) 194Bi
194mPo 2525(2) keV 15(2) µs (11−)
195Po 84 111 194.98811(4) 4.64(9) s α (75%) 191Pb 3/2−#
β+ (25%) 195Bi
195mPo 110(50) keV 1.92(2) s α (90%) 191Pb 13/2+#
β+ (10%) 195Bi
IT (.01%) 195Po
196Po 84 112 195.985535(14) 5.56(12) s α (94%) 192Pb 0+
β+ (6%) 196Bi
196mPo 2490.5(17) keV 850(90) ns (11−)
197Po 84 113 196.98566(5) 53.6(10) s β+ (54%) 197Bi (3/2−)
α (44%) 193Pb
197mPo 230(80)# keV 25.8(1) s α (84%) 193Pb (13/2+)
β+ (16%) 197Bi
IT (.01%) 197Po
198Po 84 114 197.983389(19) 1.77(3) min α (57%) 194Pb 0+
β+ (43%) 198Bi
198m1Po 2565.92(20) keV 200(20) ns 11−
198m2Po 2691.86(20) keV 750(50) ns 12+
199Po 84 115 198.983666(25) 5.48(16) min β+ (92.5%) 199Bi (3/2−)
α (7.5%) 195Pb
199mPo 312.0(28) keV 4.17(4) min β+ (73.5%) 199Bi 13/2+
α (24%) 195Pb
IT (2.5%) 199Po
200Po 84 116 199.981799(15) 11.5(1) min β+ (88.8%) 200Bi 0+
α (11.1%) 196Pb
201Po 84 117 200.982260(6) 15.3(2) min β+ (98.4%) 201Bi 3/2−
α (1.6%) 197Pb
201mPo 424.1(24) keV 8.9(2) min IT (56%) 201Po 13/2+
ε (41%) 201Bi
α (2.9%) 197Pb
202Po 84 118 201.980758(16) 44.7(5) min β+ (98%) 202Bi 0+
α (2%) 198Pb
202mPo 2626.7(7) keV >200 ns 11−
203Po 84 119 202.981420(28) 36.7(5) min β+ (99.89%) 203Bi 5/2−
α (.11%) 199Pb
203m1Po 641.49(17) keV 45(2) s IT (99.96%) 203Po 13/2+
α (.04%) 199Pb
203m2Po 2158.5(6) keV >200 ns
204Po 84 120 203.980318(12) 3.53(2) h β+ (99.33%) 204Bi 0+
α (.66%) 200Pb
205Po 84 121 204.981203(21) 1.66(2) h β+ (99.96%) 205Bi 5/2−
α (.04%) 201Pb
205m1Po 143.166(17) keV 310(60) ns 1/2−
205m2Po 880.30(4) keV 645 µs 13/2+
205m3Po 1461.21(21) keV 57.4(9) ms IT 205Po 19/2−
205m4Po 3087.2(4) keV 115(10) ns 29/2−
206Po 84 122 205.980481(9) 8.8(1) d β+ (94.55%) 206Bi 0+
α (5.45%) 202Pb
206m1Po 1585.85(11) keV 222(10) ns (8+)#
206m2Po 2262.22(14) keV 1.05(6) µs (9−)#
207Po 84 123 206.981593(7) 5.80(2) h β+ (99.97%) 207Bi 5/2−
α (.021%) 203Pb
207m1Po 68.573(14) keV 205(10) ns 1/2−
207m2Po 1115.073(16) keV 49(4) µs 13/2+
207m3Po 1383.15(6) keV 2.79(8) s IT 207Po 19/2−
208Po 84 124 207.9812457(19) 2.898(2) y α (99.99%) 204Pb 0+
β+ (.00277%) 208Bi
209Po 84 125 208.9824304(20) 125.2(3.3) y[7] α (99.52%) 205Pb 1/2−
β+ (.48%) 209Bi
210Po Radium F 84 126 209.9828737(13) 138.376(2) d α 206Pb 0+ 痕量[n 3]天然放射性
1.000
210mPo 5057.61(4) keV 263(5) ns 16+
211Po Actinium C' 84 127 210.9866532(14) 0.516(3) s α 207Pb 9/2+ 痕量[n 4]
211m1Po 1462(5) keV 25.2(6) s α (99.98%) 207Pb (25/2+)
IT (.016%) 211Po
211m2Po 2135.7(9) keV 243(21) ns (31/2−)
211m3Po 4873.3(17) keV 2.8(7) µs (43/2+)
212Po Thorium C' 84 128 211.9888680(13) 299(2) ns α 208Pb 0+ 痕量[n 5]
212mPo 2911(12) keV 45.1(6) s α (99.93%) 208Pb (18+)
IT (.07%) 212Po
213Po 84 129 212.992857(3) 3.65(4) µs α 209Pb 9/2+
214Po Radium C' 84 130 213.9952014(16) 164.3(20) µs α 210Pb 0+ 痕量[n 3]
215Po Actinium A 84 131 214.9994200(27) 1.781(4) ms α (99.99%) 211Pb 9/2+ 痕量[n 4]
β (2.3×10−4%) 215At
216Po Thorium A 84 132 216.0019150(24) 0.145(2) s α 212Pb 0+ 痕量[n 5]
ββ (不常見) 216Rn
217Po 84 133 217.006335(7) 1.47(5) s α (95%) 213Pb 5/2+#
β (5%) 217At
218Po Radium A 84 134 218.0089730(26) 3.10(1) min α (99.98%) 214Pb 0+ 痕量[n 3]
β (.02%) 218At
219Po 84 135 219.01374(39)# 2# min
[>300 ns]
7/2+#
220Po 84 136 220.01660(39)# 40# s
[>300 ns]
0+

備註:畫上#號的數據代表沒有經過實驗的證明,只是理論推測而已,而用括號括起來的代表數據不確定性。


同位素列表
鉍的同位素 釙的同位素 砈的同位素

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Abbreviations:
    ε: Electron capture
    IT: Isomeric transition
  2. ^ Bold for stable isotopes, bold italics for nearly stable isotopes (half-life longer than the age of the universe)
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Intermediate decay product of Uranium-238
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Intermediate decay product of Uranium-235
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Intermediate decay product of Thorium-232

参考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 J. R. de Laeter; J. K. Böhlke; P. De Bièvre; H. Hidaka; H. S. Peiser; K. J. R. Rosman; P. D. P. Taylor. Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2003, 75 (6): 683–800. doi:10.1351/pac200375060683. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 M. E. Wieser. Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2006, 78 (11): 2051–2066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051. Lay summary. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 G. Audi; A. H. Wapstra; C. Thibault; J. Blachot; O. Bersillon. The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties (PDF). Nuclear Physics A英语Nuclear_Physics_(journal). 2003, 729: 3–128. Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 National Nuclear Data Center英语National Nuclear Data Center. NuDat 2.1 database. Brookhaven National Laboratory. [September 2005]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 N. E. Holden. Table of the Isotopes. (编) D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics英语CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 85th. CRC Press英语CRC Press. 2004: 11-50. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9. 
  6. ^ Universal Nuclide Chart. nucleonica. (需要註冊 (說明)). 
  7. ^ Boutin, Chad. Polonium's Most Stable Isotope Gets Revised Half-Life Measurement. nist.gov. NIST Tech Beat. [9 September 2014].