取消編程

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

取消編程(英語:Deprogramming)指的是聲稱可以幫助[1]擁有爭議的信仰系統的人改變信仰並放棄對與該信仰系統相關的宗教、政治、經濟或社會團體的忠誠的措施。[2][3]解編程的定義是「釋放」或「重新訓練」某人脫離特定信念。[4]解編程員一些有爭議的方法和實踐涉及綁架非法拘禁脅迫[5]這些有時導致對解編程員的刑事定罪。[6][7]一些針對個人的取消編程是為違背個人意願而設計的,這導致了關於宗教自由綁架公民權利以及有時涉及的暴力的爭議。[8]

在1991年,美國邪教專家瑞克·阿蘭·羅斯因為和兩名助手一起對一個名叫傑森·史考特(Jason Scott)的國際聯合五旬節會成員強制實行取消編程之故,而面臨訴訟,[9]盡管陪審團最後決定無罪釋放瑞克·阿蘭·羅斯,[10][9]但這訴訟導致了875,000美元的損害賠償,而邪教認知網絡英语Cult Awareness Network必須支付1,000,000美元的懲罰性賠償,瑞克·阿蘭·羅斯個人更必須支付2,500,000美元的懲罰性賠償,而兩名助手也各需支付250,000美元的懲罰性賠償。這判決使得邪教認知網絡破產,而這判決標誌著北美洲新興宗教運動及基督教反邪教運動(Christian countercult movement)的分水嶺。[11][12]對於此案件,宗教學者约翰·高登·梅尔敦曾下過諸如「這案件使得這國家(指美國)的取消編程活動宣告終止」[註 1]和「這判決的結果……使得取消編程活動得以繼續的交通線被切斷」[註 2]等的評語。[13]詳情可見傑森·史考特案英语Jason Scott case一文的說明。

參見[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 原文:「The Scott case virtually brought deprogramming to a halt in this country」
  2. ^ 原文:「What this judgment does ... is cut the communication lines that allow deprogramming to go forward」

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Melton, J. Gordon. New Religious Movements 1. New York, NY: Routledge. 1999: 218. ISBN 0-415-20049-0. 
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 4 , Lindsay Jones, Macmillan Reference USA, 2005, pages 2291-2293
  3. ^ Children held hostage: dealing with programmed and brainwashed children, American Bar Association archive publications, Authors Stanley S. Clawar, Brynne V. Rivlin, American Bar Association. Section of Family Law Publisher Section of Family Law, American Bar Association, 1991 ISBN 0-89707-628-1, ISBN 978-0-89707-628-9, pages 142-144
  4. ^ the definition of deprogram. Dictionary.com. [2017-01-30]. (原始内容存档于2017-02-02). 
  5. ^ Patrick, Ted; Dulack, Tom. Let Our Children Go!. E. P. Dutton. 1976. ISBN 0-525-14450-1. Deprogramming is the term, and it may be said to involve kidnapping at the very least, quite often assault and battery, almost invariably conspiracy to commit a crime, and illegal restraint. 
  6. ^ Hunter, Howard O.; Price, Polly J. Regulation of religious proselytism in the United States (PDF). Brigham Young University Law Review. 2001, 2001 (2) [2020-03-06]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-07-19). 
  7. ^ Ted Patrick Convicted of Seizing Woman Said to Have Joined Cult; Escaped From Abductors. The New York Times. August 30, 1980. 
  8. ^ Ikemoto, Keiko; Nakamura, Masakazu. Forced deprogramming from a religion and mental health: A case report of PTSD. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 2004, 27 (2): 147–155. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2004.01.005. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Haines, Thomas W. 'Deprogrammer' Taken To Court -- Bellevue Man Claims Kidnap, Coercion. The Seattle Times. September 21, 1995. 
  10. ^ 'Cult Buster' Acquitted In Abduction. The Seattle Times. January 19, 1994 [January 8, 2016]. 
  11. ^ Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. 2006: 139. ISBN 0-275-98712-4. 
  12. ^ Kaplan, Jeffrey. The fall of the wall?. Nova Religio: 139–149. [2009-01-15]. doi:10.1525/nr.1997.1.1.139. 
  13. ^ Cult fighters' future in doubt; lawsuits: Group with controversial ties to deprogrammers files for bankruptcy and may be forced to shut down in wake of $1-million judgment. (1996, Jun 29). Los Angeles Times