新腹足類

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新腹足類
Neogastropoda
化石時期: 晚寒武纪–近期[1]
新腹足類之下屬於骨螺科的物種Chicoreus palmarosae的螺殼。
新腹足類之下屬於骨螺科的物種Chicoreus palmarosae螺殼
科學分類
界: 动物界 Animalia
門: 软体动物门 Mollusca
綱: 腹足纲 Gastropoda
(未分级) 新進腹足類 Caenogastropoda

高腹足類 Hypsogastropoda
新腹足類 Neogastropoda
Wenz, 1938

總科

見內文

新腹足類學名Neogastropoda)是軟體動物門腹足纲的一個不分級的演化分支。在布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類 (2005年)之前的舊分類,本分支被稱為新腹足目[2]

簡述[编辑]

新腹足類的化石紀錄相對來說比較整全,而且支持目前普遍接受的演化論場景,即:本分類物種起源自早白垩世,隨後經歷過兩輪分別發生於晚白堊世古新世的急速分化[3]

本支序物種只有一個心室、一個腎臟及one monopectinate gill, i.e. the gill filaments develop on only one side of the central axis.[4]

螺殼都留有通道讓虹管通過。這些象拔似的超長虹管is an extensible tube, formed from a fold in the mantle. It is used to suck water into the mantle cavity. At the base of the siphon is the bipectinate (branching from a central axis) osphradium, a sensory receptacle and olfactory organ, that is more developed than the one in the Mesogastropoda. They achieved important morphological changes including e.g., the elongation of the siphonal canal, a shift in the mouth opening to a terminal position on the head, and the formation of a well-developed proboscis.[3]

The nervous system is very concentrated. Many species have the ganglia in a compact space.

The rachiglossate (rasp-like) radula, a layer of serially arranged teeth within the mouth, has only three denticles (small teeth) in each transverse row.[4]

新腹足類的物種均為雌雄異體dioecious)。

本分類現時有約1.6萬個物種,其成員不乏有名的物種,例如:有毒的芋螺科物種、conchs, mud snails, olive snails, oyster drills, tulip shells, and whelks. 本分類物種除了CleaRivomarginella這兩個屬為淡水螺之外,其餘物種均為海螺。本分類是熱帶海洋裡物種多樣性最豐富的一員[3]。牠們主要為獵食者,但也有食腐动物物種。

分類[编辑]

新腹足類,舊作狭舌目Stenoglossastena意思为狭窄),具體定義為其物種的齒舌每行具有1-3个齿。之後成為了新腹足目,它被约翰尼斯·提艾利(1921)放置於前鳃亚纲Prosobranchia Milne-Edwards, 1848)之內[5][6]。打從這時開始,新腹足類物種都被認為是一個自然群組[6],與其他的新進腹足類動物格外分明[3]。所以這個分類獲普遍同意為一個單系群,因為從牠們的消化系統英语digestive system of gastropods在解剖學上的多項共有衍徵顯現出來[3]

現時新腹足類屬於新進腹足類高腹足類支序,普遍認同的總科包括下列六個總科:

這亦是新腹足類物種在布歇特和洛克羅伊的腹足類分類 (2005年)的分類[2]。不過,這種基於形態特徵的關係,從系統發育的角度來看並不穩定的。舉例說,核螺總科(Cancellarioidea Forbes & Hanley, 1851[8]蛾螺總科(Buccinoidea Rafinesque, 1815[9]就在不同的文獻並指應為餘下的新腹足類物種的姊妹群組[3]

本分類在極地亦有分佈,在南極半島西北面威德爾海西摩島曾有發現本目物種的化石[10]

[编辑]

以下為2011年前的新腹足類的所有科[2][3]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Landing, E. .; Geyer, G. .; Bartowski, K. E. Latest Early Cambrian Small Shelly Fossils, Trilobites, and Hatch Hill Dysaerobic Interval on the Quebec Continental Slope. Journal of Paleontology. March 2002, 76 (2): 287–305. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2002)076<0287:LECSSF>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0022-3360.  编辑
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Frýda, J.; Hausdorf, B.; Ponder, W.; Valdés, Á.; Warén, A. Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P., 编. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany / Ann Arbor, USA: ConchBooks). 2005, 47 (1-2): 397 pp. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Cunha, R. L.; Grande, C.; Zardoya, R. Neogastropod phylogenetic relationships based on entire mitochondrial genomes. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2009-08-23, 9 (210). doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-210. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Barnes, Robert D. Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. 1982: 376. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. 
  5. ^ Neogastropoda. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (英语). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Thiele, J. translation by J.S. Bhatti Edited by: R. Bieler & P. Mikkelsen, Smithsonian Libraries, 1993., 编. Handbuch der Systematischen Weichtierkunde Volume 1 (1) (Loricata; Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Jena, Reprint, Asher & Co., Amsterdam, 1963. 1929-10-23: 376 pp. 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 齐钟彥 (编). 中国经济软体动物. 中國農業出版社. 1998. ISBN 7-109-04711-3. 
  8. ^ Kantor, YI. Phylogeny and Relationships of Neogastropoda. (编) Taylor J. D. Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1996: 221–230 (英语). 
  9. ^ {{cite book |last1=Ponder |first1=W. F. |last2=Colgan |first2=D. J. |last3=Healy |first3=J. M. |last4=Nützel |first4=A. |last5=Simone |first5=L. R. L. |last6=Strong |first6=E. |year=2008 |chapter=Caenogastropoda |editor1=Ponder W. F. |editor2=Lindberg D. R. |title=Phylogeny and evolution of the Mollusca. Berkeley, University of California Press, 331-383.
  10. ^ Crame, J. A. Early Cenozoic Differentiation of Polar Marine Faunas. PLoS ONE. 2013, 8 (1): e54139. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054139. 

外部連結[编辑]