早期尼德蘭繪畫

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阿尔诺非尼夫妇》,揚·凡·艾克,1434年。這幅早期尼德蘭繪畫作品是西方藝術史上最複雜的作品之一,其中運用了大量的象徵性元素。[1][2]

早期尼德蘭繪畫也稱佛蘭芒原始繪畫荷兰语Vlaamse Primitieven)是15及16世紀北方文藝復興勃艮第哈布斯堡統治時的尼德蘭地區的繪畫作品,布魯日根特圖爾奈布魯塞爾是其重鎮。這些作品主要屬於國際哥特式藝術,先鋒人物是1420年代開始活躍的揚·凡·艾克罗伯特·坎平。早期尼德蘭繪畫的時代在1523年杰拉尔德·大卫去世不久之後結束。[3] 但也有學者將結束時間延遲到荷蘭起義爆發的1566至1568年間。早期尼德蘭繪畫的時閒段與前期文藝復興其全盛期這一時間基本重疊,但一般都與意大利文藝復興分開來研究。在這一時期,中世紀欧洲北方藝術達到了頂峰。

這一時期的主要藝術家包括揚·凡·艾克、罗伯特·坎平、罗希尔·范德魏登迪里克·鲍茨彼得鲁斯·克里斯蒂漢斯·梅姆林雨果·凡·德·古斯耶罗尼米斯·博斯。他們對錯視等藝術手法了如指掌,在繪畫中大量運用各種象徵。其作品基本都描繪的是宗教場景,否則就是小幅肖像畫。純粹的寫實或神話場景均不多見。繪畫中會出現精細的風景,但16世紀早期之前一般都是作為背景來使用。他們的作品一般都是板面油畫,其形式除去單幅作品外,還包括雙聯畫三聯畫及其他多聯畫。除油畫之外,他們也涉足雕塑、壁毯泥金裝飾手抄本彩色玻璃等领域。

第一代早期尼德蘭畫家活躍時正值勃艮第的全盛期,當時低地國家成爲了歐洲北部的政治經濟中心,這些畫家的作品行銷外國公卿之间。但16世紀和17世紀的偶像破壞運動中被大量銷毀,今只有數千幅留存。而這些作品直到19世紀中期才開始得到重視,然而由於早期的破壞和缺乏記錄,現在即使是一些有名的早期尼德蘭繪畫作品也仍存在許多疑點與爭議。

參考文獻[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ Ward (1994), 19
  2. ^ Elkins (1991), 53–62
  3. ^ Spronk (1996), 7

來源[编辑]

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外部連結[编辑]