犹太教四大圣城

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一幅描绘犹太教四大圣城的地图:耶路撒冷位于右上方,其下是希伯仑,约旦河自上而下流过,采法特位于左上角,提比里亚在左下方。图中绘有各城具有代表性的宗教建筑或是圣人的坟墓。

犹太教四大圣城希伯來語ארבע ערי הקודש‎‎, 意第緒語פיר רוס שטעט)是16世纪奥斯曼帝国征服巴勒斯坦之后犹太人对于犹太教义中心的四座主要城市的合称,包含耶路撒冷希伯仑采法特提比里亚四城。“圣城”这一称谓可以追溯至16世纪40年代,当时在犹太人的语境中指代的是耶路撒冷、希伯仑、采法特三座城市,提比里亚则在稍晚的17世纪40年代才被列入这一范畴。[1]

由来[编辑]

根据1906年的《犹太百科全书》记载:“自16世纪开始,圣地的神圣性……基本上均是指代四座城市——耶路撒冷、希伯仑、提比里亚和采法特。”[2]

图片[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Wigoder, Geoffrey (编). The Encyclopedia of Judaism. Macmillan: 768. 1989. Term applied to the Erets Israel cities of Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and Tiberias. These were the four main centers of Jewish life after the Ottoman conquest of 1516. The concept of the holy cities dates only from the 1640s, when the Jewish communities of Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed organized an association to improve the system of fundraising in the Diaspora. Previously, such fundraising had been undertaken by individual institutions; now it was agreed that the emissaries would be sent on behalf of each urban Jewish community as a whole, with not more than one emissary per town. After Tiberias was refounded in 1740, it also joined the association. This arrangement did not last long, however, and by the mid-19th century there was no authority strong enough to enforce a centralized collection of ḥalukkah funds. The term "Four Holy Cities" became a convenient designation by historians rather than the title of an actual functioning body. In Jewish tradition, going back to ancient times, the only city regarded as holy is Jerusalem 
  2. ^ Palestine, Holiness Of by Joseph Jacobs, Judah David Eisenstein. Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906 ed.
  3. ^ Why Do Jews Love Jerusalem? by Yeruchem Eilfort. Chabad.org/ Ideas & Beliefs/Questions & Answers/Mitzvot & Jewish Customs
  4. ^ 耶路撒冷地位. 以色列外交部. 1999-03-14 [2007-02-12]. 
  5. ^ Dov Noy; Dan Ben-Amos; Ellen Frankel. Folktales of the Jews: Tales from the Sephardic dispersion. Jewish Publication Society. November 2006: 66 [17 October 2010]. ISBN 978-0-8276-0829-0. 
  6. ^ Henry W. Bellows. The Old World in Its New Face: Impressions of Europe in 1867-1868, Volume II. BiblioBazaar, LLC. 2008: 337 [17 October 2010]. ISBN 978-0-559-64379-8.