青年

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青年(英語:Youth)敘述一個人年少、年輕的人生時期,但通常的範圍指童年期與成年期(心理成熟)之間[1][2],或指年紀中年以下、少年以上的人。由於人類個體實際心智的成熟並不完全與生存年代數字(年歲)相對應,生理上成熟的成年人也可能在心智層面尚未成熟,故青年也有不同的文化定義。


一群美國德州的青少年,teenager和青少年常常會混用

年齡範圍[編輯]

青年的年齡範圍現存有多種定義:

  1. 現代漢語詞典》:15/16周歲-30周歲。
  2. 聯合國:聯合國青年議題官方中文網站定義為15-24周歲之間。[46]
  3. 中華民國十大傑出青年: 20周歲-40周歲之間,為有獲選的積極資格。

文化意義[編輯]

  • 毛澤東比喻青年人為早上八九點鐘的太陽,寓意青年為人生中充滿朝氣及活力的階段。
  • 塞繆爾·厄爾曼宣告青春並非年輕歲月,而是一種心態。

參見[編輯]

參考資料[編輯]

  1. ^ "Youth". Macmillan Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Retrieved 2013-8-15.
  2. ^ Youth. Merriam-Webster. [November 6, 2012]. 
  3. ^ Youth. Dictionary.com. [November 6, 2012]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Furlong, Andy. Youth Studies: An Introduction. USA: Routledge. 2013: 2–3. ISBN 978-0-415-56476-2. 
  5. ^ Konopka, Gisela. (1973) "Requirements for Healthy Development of Adolescent Youth", Adolescence. 8 (31), p. 24.
  6. ^ Youth dictionary definition - youth defined. 
  7. ^ Webster's New World Dictionary.
  8. ^ Altschuler, D.; Strangler, G.; Berkley, K.; Burton, L. (2009); "Supporting Youth in Transition to Adulthood: Lessons Learned from Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice" 網際網路檔案館存檔,存檔日期September 16, 2012,.. Center for Juvenile Justice Reform.
  9. ^ Furlong, Andy. Youth Studies, An Introduction. Milton Park, Abingdon: Routledge. 2013: 2–3. 
  10. ^ Furlong, Andy. Youth Studies: An Introduction. USA: Routledge. 2013: 3–4. ISBN 978-0-415-56476-2. 
  11. ^ Furlong, Andy. Youth Studies: An Introduction. New York: Routledge. 2011. ISBN 978-0415564793. 
  12. ^ Tyyskä, Vappu. Conceptualizing and Theorizing Youth: Global Perspectives. Contemporary Youth Research: Local Expressions and Global Connections. London: Ashgate Books. 2005: 3. ISBN 0-7546-4161-9. 
  13. ^ "Day of Affirmation, University of Cape Town, South Africa. June 6, 1966" 網際網路檔案館存檔,存檔日期February 27, 2011,., Robert F. Kennedy Memorial. Retrieved 11/9/07.
  14. ^ Thomas, A. (2003) "Psychology of Adolescents", Self-Concept, Weight Issues and Body Image in Children and Adolescents, p. 88.
  15. ^ Wing, John, Jr. "Youth." Windsor Review: A Journal of the Arts 45.1 (2012): 9+. Academic OneFile. Web. 24 Oct. 2012.
  16. ^ Nigeria 2009 National Youth Policy. 
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 Dalsgaard, Anne Line Hansen, Karen Tranberg. "Youth and the City in the Global South" In Tracking Globalization. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 2008: 9
  18. ^ Drinking Age Limits 網際網路檔案館存檔,存檔日期2013-01-20. - International Center for Alcohol Policies
  19. ^ Emanuele Ferragina et al.(2016). Outsiderness and participation in liberal market economies. PACO The Open Journal of Sociopolitical Studies, 9, 986-1014 http://scholar.google.fr/scholar_url?url=http%3A%2F%2Fsiba-ese.unisalento.it%2Findex.php%2Fpaco%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F16664%2F14327&hl=fr&sa=T&ei=AN-iWPD-EIupmAHrx5vACw&scisig=AAGBfm3_dOCLibWFNHNtG62FKywcq7PxNA&nossl=1&ws=1920x909
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  21. ^ Njapa-Minyard, Pamela. After-school Programs: Attracting and Sustaining Youth Participation. International Journal of Learning. 2010, 17 (9): 177–182. 
  22. ^ Global patterns of mortality in young people: a systematic analysis of population health data. The Lancet. September 2009, 374 (9693): 881–892. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60741-8. 
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  24. ^ Grunbaum, J.A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Lowry, R., Harris, W.A., McManus, T., Chyen, D., Collins, J. (2004) Youth risk behavior surveillance--United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries, 53(2), 1-96.
  25. ^ William, H. (1998) Health Consequences of Obesity in Youth: Childhood Predictors of Adult Disease, Pediatrics, 101(2), 518-525.
  26. ^ Boulton MJ, Underwood K. Bully/victim problems among middle school children. Br J Educ Psychol.1992;62:73-87.
  27. ^ Olweus D. Aggression in the Schools: Bullies and Whipping Boys. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing Corp; 1978.
  28. ^ Salmivalli C, Kaukiainen A, Kaistaniemi L, Lagerspetz KM. Self-evaluated self-esteem, peer-evaluated self-esteem, and defensive egotism as predictors of adolescents' participation in bullying situations. Pers Soc Psychol Bull.1999;25:1268-1278.
  29. ^ Slee PT. Bullying in the playground: the impact of inter-personal violence on Australian children's perceptions of their play environment. Child Environ.1995;12:320-327.
  30. ^ King A, Wold B, Tudor-Smith C, Harel Y. The Health of Youth: A Cross-National Survey. Canada: WHO Library Cataloguing; 1994. WHO Regional Publications, European Series No. 69.
  31. ^ US Department of Education. 1999 Annual Report on School Safety. Washington, DC: US Dept of Education; 1999:1-66.
  32. ^ Borg MG. The extent and nature of bullying among primary and secondary schoolchildren. Educ Res.1999;41:137-153.
  33. ^ Kaltiala-Heino R, Rimpela M, Marttunen M, Rimpela A, Rantanen P. Bullying, depression, and suicidal ideation in Finnish adolescents: school survey. BMJ.1999;319:348-351.
  34. ^ Menesini E, Eslea M, Smith PK. et al. Cross-national comparison of children's attitudes towards bully/victim problems in school. Aggressive Behav.1997;23:245-257.
  35. ^ Olweus D. Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Oxford, England: Blackwell; 1993.
  36. ^ O'Moore AM, Smith KM. Bullying behaviour in Irish schools: a nationwide study. Ir J Psychol.1997;18:141-169.
  37. ^ Whitney I, Smith PK. A survey of the nature and extent of bullying in junior/middle and secondary schools. Educ Res.1993;34:3-25.
  38. ^ Austin S, Joseph S. Assessment of bully/victim problems in 8 to 11 year-olds. Br J Educ Psychol.1996;66:447-456.
  39. ^ Forero R, McLellan L, Rissel C, Bauman A. Bullying behaviour and psychosocial health among school students in New South Wales, Australia: cross sectional survey. BMJ.1999;319:344-348.
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  41. ^ Haynie DL, Nansel TR, Eitel P. et al. Bullies, victims, and bully/victims: distinct groups of youth at-risk. J Early Adolescence.2001;21:29-50.
  42. ^ Petchesky, R. (2000) 'Sexual rights: inventing a concept, mapping an international practice,' in R. Parker, R.M. Barbosa and P. Aggleton (eds), Framing the sexual subject: The politics of Gender, Sexuality and Power, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 81-103
  43. ^ Bearinger, Linda H., et al. 2007. "Global perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health of adelescents: patterns, prevention, and potential." The Lancet 369.9568: 1226
  44. ^ Catajan, Maria Elena. NYC: Use SK funds right. SunStar Baguio. March 24, 2014 [26 March 2014]. 
  45. ^ 45.0 45.1 Furlong, Andy. Youth Studies: An Introduction. USA: Routledge. 2013: 227–228. ISBN 978-0-415-56476-2. 
  46. ^ [1]
前任:
青少年
人類發展階段英語Human development (biology)
青年
繼任:
中年