塞尔柱帝国

维基百科,自由的百科全书
(重定向自塞爾柱人
跳到导航 跳到搜索
Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
大塞尔柱帝国

1037年-1194年
大塞尔柱国旗
国旗
1092年处于鼎盛时期的大塞尔柱帝国
1092年处于鼎盛时期的大塞尔柱帝国
地位 帝国
首都 内沙布尔
(1037–1043)
雷伊
(1043–1051)
伊斯法罕
(1051–1118)
哈马丹西都 (1118–1194)
梅尔夫东都 (1118–1153)
常用语言
政府 君主制
苏丹或沙阿  
• 1037–1063
图格鲁勒一世(首)
• 1174–1194
圖格里爾三世(末)[5][6]
历史  
• 图格鲁勒建国
1037年
• 花剌子模建国[7]
1194年
面积
1080年估计 3,900,000 km2
先前国
继承国
伽色尼王国
白益王朝
沙勒立王朝
拜占庭帝国
格古益王朝
古尔王朝
花剌子模帝國
鲁姆苏丹国
阿尤布王朝
Atabegs of Azerbaijan
Burid dynasty
赞吉王朝
达尼什曼德王朝
阿尔图格王朝
萨尔图吉王朝
今属于
系列条目
土耳其历史
土耳其国旗
Portal-puzzle.svg 土耳其主题
Faravahar background
大伊朗地區歷史
現代國家興起前
現代之前

大塞尔柱帝国现代土耳其语:Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu;波斯語دولت سلجوقیان‎)是中世纪时期的突厥-波斯[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]逊尼派伊斯兰帝国,由乌古斯人中的一支发展而来[16],领土范围东至兴都库什山脉,西至东部安纳托利亚,北至中亚,南至波斯湾。塞尔柱人由咸海发迹,随后挺进呼罗珊,再入波斯地区,最终征服东安纳托利亚。

11世纪前半叶,塞尔柱王朝的创立者图格鲁勒·贝格为帝国的建立打下了基础。他的父亲为乌古斯叶护国的高官,圖格魯勒·貝格本人全名的一部份(塞尔柱)也是王朝和帝国名称的由来。1037年,图格鲁勒·贝格正式创立帝国。塞尔柱人统一了支离分裂的东部伊斯兰世界,并在第一次第二次十字军东征中扮演了重要的角色。塞尔柱帝国在文化[17][18][19]和语言[10][20][21][22][23]上表现为高度波斯化[10][11][12][13],并在突厥-波斯文化的发展传承上具有十分重要的地位[24],同时还将波斯文化传播至安纳托利亚[25][26]。突厥部落在帝国西北部的战略性定居大大促进了这些地区的突厥化[27]

歷史[编辑]

背景[编辑]

八世紀伊朗地區在經歷伊斯蘭征服後,相繼由阿拉伯帝國奧米亞王朝(白衣大食)、阿拔斯王朝(黑衣大食)統治。隨著阿拔斯王朝與拜占庭帝國的長年戰爭,帝國對伊朗地區的控制持續衰弱。九世紀末,薩曼·胡達英语Saman Khuda擊退阿拉伯人,在伊朗東部建立了薩曼王朝。十世紀末,薩曼的奴隸將軍阿爾普特勤及其女婿蘇布克特勤自立伽色尼王國,取代舊主,掌握伊朗東部的統治權;與重奪伊朗西部的阿拉伯白益王朝分庭抗禮。在動亂中,各勢力常僱傭北方中亞地區的游牧民族為傭兵,烏古斯人是其中較為強大的一支。

建立[编辑]

起初,塞爾柱人屬於烏古斯人中的一個部族,以雇傭兵的身分在突厥斯坦地區活躍。西元985年,由於與烏古斯領袖的爭執,塞爾柱·貝格帶領部族離開了烏古斯葉護國,獨立為新的部族。他們在錫爾河一帶游牧並皈依伊斯蘭教,並以傭兵的身分參與了喀喇汗國的王位內戰,與烏古斯族、伽色尼王國交惡。

1040年,塞爾柱的孫子圖赫里勒·貝格恰格勒·貝格丹丹納干戰役中打倒了宿敵伽色尼王國,征服了伊朗東部的呼羅珊地區,圖赫里勒自立為蘇丹。為紀念祖父,兄弟將國名命為塞爾柱蘇丹國。

擴張[编辑]

從1040年之後,图格鲁勒將目光轉向波斯灣北部,佔領了伊拉克一帶和米底亞王國南部的哈馬丹城,並於1055年,替阿拔斯哈里發白益王朝手中奪回巴格達城。被正式追封為蘇丹的兄弟以哈里發的支持為後盾,進一步往南部巴勒斯坦地區以及西部安納托利亞高原擴張。

十一世紀的東羅馬帝國經歷早先巴西爾一世的持續擴張,國家的力量被帝國的幅員及連年戰爭所削弱。在這種情況下,塞爾柱突厥部族從東方大舉進軍拜占庭帝國。[28][29],佔領了在高加索小亞細亞的大片領土。

1071年8月,第二任蘇丹阿爾普·阿爾斯蘭在亞美尼亞凡湖以北的曼齊刻爾特戰役擊敗由羅曼努斯四世所率領的東羅馬帝國軍隊,正式占領全小亞細亞。[30]同年,塞爾柱突厥人從法蒂瑪王朝奪得聖城耶路撒冷。東羅馬帝國阿萊克修斯一世(1081-1118),向教宗烏爾班二世求救。烏爾班二世在法國克列芒招募民衆前往聖地,解放耶路撒冷。該演說直接引發了後來的十字軍東征[31]

第三任蘇丹馬立克沙一世則專注於帝國東方的領土,先後擊敗喀喇汗國伽色尼王國,取得中亞河中地區的統治權,使帝國的疆域達到極致。

暗殺、分裂、十字軍[编辑]

儘管塞爾柱帝國擴張迅速,由於突厥遊牧民本身行政人才的缺乏,使帝國必須仰賴大量原住民管理被征服地。以宰相尼札姆·穆勒克為首,帝國的軍政要職大多由波斯人把持,「伊克塔英语Iqta'」制的推行側面象徵突厥人缺乏管理領地行政的意願。另外,由於宗教政策的緣故,波斯人與伊斯瑪儀派的關係也持續惡化,阿薩辛等極端派系也隨之出現。

1092年底,馬立克沙一世與尼札姆的政爭爆發,多方政治、宗教勢力介入之下,兩人在不到一個月的時間內接連被刺殺。權力的真空使帝國陷入分裂,繼承人間為爭奪王位紛紛佔地為王,基利杰·阿尔斯兰一世英语Kilij Arslan I统治着安纳托利亚的罗姆苏丹国突突什一世英语Tutush I则执掌叙利亚,耶路薩冷重新為法提瑪王朝掌控。而突突什一世於1095年死去后,其子法赫尔·穆尔克·拉德温英语Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan杜卡克英语Duqaq又分别继承了阿勒颇大马士革,繼承人短命與戰亂頻繁的惡性循環使帝國陷入衰退之中。[32]

第一次十字军东征之前就分裂為若干勢力的塞爾柱帝國,在面對歐洲人攻擊時疲於應對,如罗姆蘇丹基利杰·阿尔斯兰一世英语Kilij Arslan I便於尼西亞埃斯基謝希爾等地陷入苦戰,無力阻止十字軍的步伐。最終,塞爾柱人喪失了地中海沿岸的大部分領土。

滅亡[编辑]

1141年,西遼卡特萬之戰擊敗塞爾柱帝國,使塞爾柱失去了对中亞的控制。

1153年,烏古斯人擒獲蘇丹艾哈邁德·桑賈爾,並攻下古都內沙布爾,塞爾柱失去對波斯的控制,實際領土退縮至伊拉克阿塞拜疆一帶。

1194年,花剌子模國王塔乞失哈馬丹打敗塞爾柱末代蘇丹圖格里爾三世,塞爾柱帝國滅亡,版圖併入花剌子模王朝。1243年,蒙古帝国入侵小亚细亚,蒙古大將拜住古茲達格戰役中擊潰罗姆苏丹国的軍隊,从此罗姆苏丹国沦为蒙古伊儿汗国的藩属。1299年罗姆苏丹国发生分裂,1307年从历史记录上消失。

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Savory, R. M. and Roger Savory, Introduction to Islamic civilisation, (Cambridge University Press, 1976 ), 82.
  2. ^ Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)
  4. ^ Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
  5. ^ A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  6. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  8. ^ Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia.
  9. ^ Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2007-03-11.): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  14. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  15. ^ Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
  16. ^
    • Jackson, P. Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens. Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies). 2002, 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi. Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299-313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). ON ROMANI ORIGINS AND IDENTITY. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  17. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391.
  18. ^ Mehmed Fuad Koprulu's, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 149.
  19. ^ Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Persianized and Islamicized"
  20. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2012-01-22.)
  21. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  22. ^ M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157-69
  23. ^ F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."
  24. ^ "The Turko-Persian tradition features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers"." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."
  25. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.
  26. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, History of Asia, Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98.
  27. ^
    • Golden, P. B., Harrasowitz, O.(1992) An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. pg 386.
    • Perry, J. Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193-200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN
    • Bosworth, C.E. Arran in Encyclopedia Iranica
    • According to Fridrik Thordarson, "Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41-42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226-28, and VI, pp. 950-52). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."
  28. ^ 馮作民《西洋全史》(5)
  29. ^ 布林頓《西洋文化史》第二卷
  30. ^ 愛德華.吉朋《羅馬帝國衰亡史》【第五卷】
  31. ^ 海天書樓《基督教二千年史》
  32. ^ Holt 1989,第11, 14–15页.