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Büyük Selçuklu Devleti
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān


首都 內沙布爾
哈馬丹西都 (1118–1194)
梅爾夫東都 (1118–1153)
政體 君主制
- 1037–1063 圖格魯勒一世(首)
- 1174–1194 圖格里爾三世(末)[5][6]
 - 圖格魯勒建國 1037年
 - 花剌子模建國[7] 1194年
- 1080年估計 3,900,000 平方公里
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG 伽色尼王國
Buyids 970.png 白益王朝
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大塞爾柱帝國現代土耳其語:Büyük Selçuklu Devleti;波斯語دولت سلجوقیان‎)是中世紀時期的突厥-波斯[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]遜尼派伊斯蘭帝國,由烏古斯人中的一支發展而來[16],領土範圍東至興都庫什山脈,西至東部安納托利亞,北至中亞,南至波斯灣。塞爾柱人由鹹海發跡,隨後挺進呼羅珊,再入波斯地區,最終征服東安納托利亞。






從1040年開始塞爾柱土耳其人向伊朗中部擴張。八世紀以後,伊朗一直是在阿拉伯帝國的統治下。隨著阿拉伯帝國的衰弱,重新強盛起來的拜占庭又取而代之,趁機向東擴張,取代阿拉伯帝國在伊朗的統治。 拜占庭帝國經歷巴西爾一世所開創拜占庭馬其頓王朝(866年-1057年)開啟了東羅馬帝國第二個輝煌時期,但持續的擴張削弱了國家的政治、軍事力量,而且也使自身的力量受到損失。就在這種情況下,塞爾柱土耳其人從東方大舉入侵,像潮水一樣湧進拜占庭。[28][29] 塞爾柱人在他們的首領圖格魯勒·貝格的率領下,征服了伊朗東部。他在征服了波斯之後建立了塞爾柱蘇丹國,向南侵略波斯灣北部的伊拉克一帶和米地亞南部的哈馬丹並於1055年從白益王朝手中奪回阿拔斯哈里發的首都巴格達。1071年8月,塞爾柱帝國阿爾普·阿爾斯蘭(圖赫里勒•貝格的姪子)在亞美尼亞凡湖以北的曼齊刻爾特戰役擊敗由羅曼努斯四世所率領的東羅馬帝國軍隊,並占領整個小亞細亞。[30] 同一年塞爾柱土耳其人從法蒂瑪王朝奪得耶路撒冷。東羅馬帝國阿萊克修斯一世(1081-1118),向教宗烏爾班二世求救。烏爾班二世在法國克列芒發表激動人心的演說,招募民衆前往聖地,將耶路撒冷從土耳其人解放出來。這一事件引發後來的十字軍東征[31]


第一次十字軍東征之前,塞爾柱帝國分裂為若干小國。基利傑·阿爾斯蘭一世英語Kilij Arslan I統治著安納托利亞的魯姆蘇丹國突突什一世英語Tutush I則執掌敘利亞。突突什一世於1095年死後,其子法赫爾·穆爾克·拉德溫英語Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan杜卡克英語Duqaq分別繼承了阿勒頗大馬士革,其後內部一直分裂並且相互對立。[32]




  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Savory, R. M. and Roger Savory, Introduction to Islamic civilisation, (Cambridge University Press, 1976 ), 82.
  2. ^ Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)
  4. ^ Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
  5. ^ A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  6. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  8. ^ Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia.
  9. ^ Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  14. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  15. ^ Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
  16. ^
    • Jackson, P. Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens. Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies). 2002, 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi. Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299-313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). ON ROMANI ORIGINS AND IDENTITY. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  17. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391.
  18. ^ Mehmed Fuad Koprulu's, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 149.
  19. ^ Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Persianized and Islamicized"
  20. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  21. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  22. ^ M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157-69
  23. ^ F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."
  24. ^ "The Turko-Persian tradition features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers"." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."
  25. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.
  26. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, History of Asia, Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98.
  27. ^
    • Golden, P. B., Harrasowitz, O.(1992) An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. pg 386.
    • Perry, J. Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193-200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN
    • Bosworth, C.E. Arran in Encyclopedia Iranica
    • According to Fridrik Thordarson, "Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41-42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226-28, and VI, pp. 950-52). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."
  28. ^ 馮作民《西洋全史》(5)
  29. ^ 布林頓《西洋文化史》第二卷
  30. ^ 愛德華.吉朋《羅馬帝國衰亡史》【第五卷】
  31. ^ 海天書樓《基督教二千年史》
  32. ^ Holt 1989,第11, 14–15頁.