塞爾柱帝國

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Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
大塞爾柱帝國
帝國
1037年-1194年

國旗

大塞爾柱位置圖
1092年處於鼎盛時期的大塞爾柱帝國
首都 內沙布爾
(1037–1043)
雷伊
(1043–1051)
伊斯法罕
(1051–1118)
哈馬丹西都 (1118–1194)
梅爾夫東都 (1118–1153)
常用語言
政體 君主制
蘇丹或沙阿
- 1037–1063 圖格魯勒一世(首)
- 1174–1194 圖格里爾三世(末)[5][6]
歷史
 - 圖格魯勒建國 1037年
 - 花剌子模建國[7] 1194年
面積
- 1080年估計 3,900,000 平方公里
先前國
繼承國
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG 伽色尼王國
Buyids 970.png 白益王朝
SallaridMapHistoryofIran.png 沙勒立王朝
JustinianusI.jpg 拜占庭帝國
KakuyidMapHistoryofIran.png 格古益王朝
古爾王朝 Ghurids1200.png
花剌子模帝國 Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
魯姆蘇丹國 Blank.png
阿尤布王朝 Flag of Ayyubid Dynasty.svg
Atabegs of Azerbaijan Blank.png
Burid dynasty Blank.png
贊吉王朝 Blank.png
達尼什曼德王朝 Blank.png
阿爾圖格王朝 Blank.png
薩爾圖吉王朝 Blank.png
今屬於
系列條目
土耳其歷史
土耳其國旗
Portal-puzzle.svg 土耳其主題
Faravahar background
大伊朗地區歷史
現代國家興起前
現代之前

大塞爾柱帝國現代土耳其語:Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu;波斯語:دولت سلجوقیان‎)是中世紀時期的突厥-波斯[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]遜尼派伊斯蘭帝國,由烏古斯人中的一支發展而來[16],領土範圍東至興都庫什山脈,西至東部安納托利亞,北至中亞,南至波斯灣。塞爾柱人由鹹海發跡,隨後挺進呼羅珊,再入波斯地區,最終征服東安納托利亞。

11世紀前半葉,塞爾柱王朝的創立者圖格魯勒·貝格為帝國的建立打下了基礎。他的父親為烏古斯葉護國的高官,圖格魯勒·貝格本人全名的一部份(塞爾柱)也是王朝和帝國名稱的由來。1037年,圖格魯勒·貝格正式創立帝國。塞爾柱人統一了支離分裂的東部伊斯蘭世界,並在第一次第二次十字軍東征中扮演了重要的角色。塞爾柱帝國在文化[17][18][19]和語言[10][20][21][22][23]上表現為高度波斯化[10][11][12][13],並在突厥-波斯文化的發展傳承上具有十分重要的地位[24],同時還將波斯文化傳播至安納托利亞[25][26]。突厥部落在帝國西北部的戰略性定居大大促進了這些地區的突厥化[27]

歷史[編輯]

背景[編輯]

八世紀伊朗地區在經歷伊斯蘭征服後,相繼由阿拉伯帝國奧米亞王朝(白衣大食)、阿拔斯王朝(黑衣大食)統治。隨著阿拔斯王朝與拜占庭帝國的長年戰爭,帝國對伊朗地區的控制持續衰握。九世紀末,薩曼·胡達英語Saman Khuda擊退阿拉伯人,在伊朗東部建立了薩曼王朝。十世紀末,薩曼的奴隸將軍阿爾普特勤及其女婿蘇布克特勤自立伽色尼王國,取代舊主,掌握伊朗東部的統治權;與重奪伊朗西部的阿拉伯白益王朝分庭抗禮。在動亂中,各勢力常僱傭北方中亞地區的遊牧民族為傭兵,烏古斯人是其中較為強大的一支。

建立[編輯]

起初,塞爾柱人屬於烏古斯人中的一個部族,以雇傭兵的身分在突厥斯坦地區活躍。

西元985年,由於與烏古斯領袖的爭執,塞爾柱·貝格帶領部族離開了烏古斯葉護國,在錫爾河一帶遊牧並皈依伊斯蘭教。

1040年,一族在塞爾柱的孫子圖赫里勒·貝格恰格勒·貝格的率領下,於丹丹納干戰役中打倒了他們的宿敵伽色尼王國,征服了伊朗東部的呼羅珊地區,圖赫里勒自立為蘇丹。為紀念祖父,兄弟將國名命為塞爾柱蘇丹國。

擴張[編輯]

從1040年之後,圖格魯勒將目光轉向南方,侵略波斯灣北部的伊拉克一帶和米底亞王國南部的哈馬丹城,並於1055年,替阿拔斯哈里發白益王朝手中奪回巴格達城。被正式追封為蘇丹的兄弟挾哈里發令諸侯,進一步往南部巴勒斯坦地區以及西部安納托利亞高原擴張。

十一世紀的東羅馬帝國經歷早先巴西爾一世的持續擴張,國家的力量被帝國的幅員及連年戰爭所削弱。在這種情況下,塞爾柱突厥人從東方大舉入侵,像潮水一樣湧進拜占庭帝國。[28][29],並佔領了拜占庭在高加索小亞細亞的大片領土。

1071年8月,第二任蘇丹阿爾普·阿爾斯蘭在亞美尼亞凡湖以北的曼齊刻爾特戰役擊敗由羅曼努斯四世所率領的東羅馬帝國軍隊,正式占領全小亞細亞。[30]同年,塞爾柱突厥人從法蒂瑪王朝奪得聖城耶路撒冷。東羅馬帝國阿萊克修斯一世(1081-1118),向教宗烏爾班二世求救。烏爾班二世在法國克列芒招募民衆前往聖地,解放耶路撒冷。該演說直接引發了後來的十字軍東征[31]

暗殺、分裂、十字軍[編輯]

阿爾斯蘭過世後,由其子馬立克沙一世以及重臣尼札姆·穆勒克繼續經營帝國。然而兩人在1092年底,在不到一個月的時間內接連被刺殺。權力的真空使帝國在第一次十字軍東征之前就分裂為若干小國。基利傑·阿爾斯蘭一世英語Kilij Arslan I統治著安納托利亞的魯姆蘇丹國突突什一世英語Tutush I則執掌敘利亞,耶路薩冷則重新為法提瑪王朝掌控。而突突什一世於1095年死去後,其子法赫爾·穆爾克·拉德溫英語Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan杜卡克英語Duqaq又分別繼承了阿勒頗大馬士革,其後帝國一直維持著分裂並且相互對立的狀態。[32]

滅亡[編輯]

1194年,花剌子模國王塔乞失哈馬丹打敗塞爾柱末代蘇丹圖格里爾三世,塞爾柱帝國滅亡,版圖併入花剌子模王朝。1243年,蒙古帝國入侵小亞細亞,在科塞達克將羅姆蘇丹國軍擊潰,從此羅姆蘇丹國淪為蒙古伊兒汗國的藩屬。1299年羅姆蘇丹國發生分裂,1307年從歷史記錄上消失。

參考資料[編輯]

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  2. ^ Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
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  4. ^ Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
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  6. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  8. ^ Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia.
  9. ^ Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK 網際網路檔案館存檔,存檔日期2007-03-11.): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  14. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  15. ^ Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
  16. ^
    • Jackson, P. Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens. Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies). 2002, 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
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    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  17. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391.
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  19. ^ Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Persianized and Islamicized"
  20. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK 網際網路檔案館存檔,存檔日期2012-01-22.)
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  24. ^ "The Turko-Persian tradition features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers"." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."
  25. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.
  26. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, History of Asia, Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98.
  27. ^
    • Golden, P. B., Harrasowitz, O.(1992) An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. pg 386.
    • Perry, J. Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193-200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN
    • Bosworth, C.E. Arran in Encyclopedia Iranica
    • According to Fridrik Thordarson, "Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41-42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226-28, and VI, pp. 950-52). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."
  28. ^ 馮作民《西洋全史》(5)
  29. ^ 布林頓《西洋文化史》第二卷
  30. ^ 愛德華.吉朋《羅馬帝國衰亡史》【第五卷】
  31. ^ 海天書樓《基督教二千年史》
  32. ^ Holt 1989,第11, 14–15頁.