塞爾柱帝國

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Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
大塞爾柱帝國

1037年-1194年
1092年處於鼎盛時期的大塞爾柱帝國
1092年處於鼎盛時期的大塞爾柱帝國
地位帝國
首都內沙布爾
(1037–1043)
雷伊
(1043–1051)
伊斯法罕
(1051–1118)
哈馬丹西都 (1118–1194)
梅爾夫東都 (1118–1153)
常用語言
政府君主制
蘇丹或沙阿 
• 1037–1063
圖赫里勒一世(首)
• 1174–1194
圖赫里勒三世(末)[5][6]
歷史 
• 圖赫里勒建國
1037年
• 花剌子模建國[7]
1194年
面積
1080年估計3,900,000平方公里
先前國
繼承國
加茲尼王國
白益王朝
沙勒立王朝
拜占庭帝國
格古益王朝
古爾王朝
花剌子模帝國
魯姆蘇丹國
阿尤布王朝
埃爾迪古茲王朝
布里迪王朝
贊吉王朝
達尼什曼德王朝
阿爾圖格王朝
薩爾圖吉王朝
今屬於
系列條目
土耳其歷史
土耳其國旗
Portal-puzzle.svg 土耳其主題
Faravahar background
大伊朗地區歷史
現代國家興起前
現代之前

大塞爾柱帝國現代土耳其語:Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu;波斯語دولت سلجوقیان‎),又稱塞爾柱帝國塞爾柱土耳其帝國,是中世紀時期的突厥-波斯[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]遜尼派伊斯蘭帝國,由烏古斯人中的一支發展而來[16],領土範圍東至興都庫什山脈,西至東部安納托利亞,北至中亞,南至波斯灣。塞爾柱人由鹹海發跡,隨後挺進呼羅珊,再入波斯地區,最終征服東安納托利亞。

11世紀前半葉,塞爾柱王朝的創立者圖格魯勒·貝格為帝國的建立打下了基礎。自1037年正式建國後,塞爾柱人統一了支離分裂的東部伊斯蘭世界,並在第一次第二次十字軍東征中扮演了重要的角色。塞爾柱帝國在文化[17][18][19]和語言[10][20][21][22][23]上表現為高度波斯化[10][11][12][13],並在突厥-波斯文化的發展傳承上具有十分重要的地位[24],同時還將波斯文化傳播至安納托利亞[25][26]。突厥部落在帝國西北部的戰略性定居大大促進了這些地區的突厥化[27]

歷史[編輯]

背景[編輯]

八世紀伊朗地區在經歷伊斯蘭征服後,相繼由阿拉伯帝國倭馬亞王朝(又稱伍麥葉、白衣大食)、阿拔斯王朝(黑衣大食)統治。隨著阿拔斯王朝與拜占庭帝國的長年戰爭,帝國對伊朗地區的控制持續衰弱。九世紀末,薩曼·胡達英語Saman Khuda擊退阿拉伯人,在伊朗東部建立了薩曼王朝。十世紀末,薩曼的突厥奴隸將軍阿爾普特勤及其女婿蘇布克特勤自立加茲尼王朝,取代舊主,掌握伊朗東部的統治權;與重奪伊朗西部的阿拉伯白益王朝分庭抗禮。在動亂中,各勢力常僱傭北方中亞地區的遊牧民族為傭兵,烏古斯人是其中較為強大的一支。

建立[編輯]

起初,塞爾柱人屬於烏古斯人中的一個部族,以雇傭兵的身分在突厥斯坦地區活躍。西元985年,由於與烏古斯領袖的爭執,塞爾柱·貝格帶領部族離開了烏古斯葉護國,獨立為新的部族。他們在錫爾河一帶遊牧並皈依伊斯蘭教,並以傭兵的身分參與了喀喇汗國的王位內戰,與烏古斯族、加茲尼王朝交惡。

1040年,塞爾柱的孫子圖赫里勒·貝格恰格勒·貝格丹丹納干戰役中打倒了宿敵加茲尼王國,征服了伊朗東部的呼羅珊地區,圖赫里勒自立為蘇丹。為紀念祖父,兄弟將國名命為塞爾柱蘇丹國。

擴張[編輯]

建國之後,圖格魯勒將目光轉向波斯灣北部,佔領了伊拉克一帶、米底亞王國南部哈馬丹等地。1055年,他替阿拔斯哈里發白益王朝手中奪回巴格達,被正式追封為蘇丹。塞爾柱人以哈里發的支持為後盾,進一步往南部巴勒斯坦地區以及西部小亞細亞(今土耳其)擴張。

此一時期的西亞,原先控制約旦河流域的法蒂瑪王朝、握有小亞細亞的東羅馬帝國皆因連年征戰和國內腐敗面臨衰退,塞爾柱人多次蠶食臣屬這倆國的勢力,彼此間的衝突日漸白熱化。

1071年8月,第二任蘇丹阿爾普·阿爾斯蘭曼齊刻爾特之戰大敗由羅曼努斯四世所率領的東羅馬帝國軍隊,正式占領小亞細亞[28]。同年,塞爾柱人從法蒂瑪王朝手中奪得聖城耶路撒冷[29]。在突厥部族從東方大舉移入的情況下[30],東羅馬皇帝阿萊克修斯一世教宗烏爾班二世求救。教宗因此在法國克列芒發表演說,招募民衆解放聖地耶路撒冷。該演說直接促成了後來的第一次十字軍[31]

第三任蘇丹馬立克沙一世則專注於與帝國東方的對手交戰,他先後擊敗宿敵喀喇汗國加茲尼王國,穩固塞爾柱在中亞河中地區的統治,使帝國的疆域達到極致。

暗殺、分裂、十字軍[編輯]

儘管塞爾柱帝國擴張迅速,由於突厥遊牧民本身行政人才的缺乏,使帝國必須仰賴大量原住民管理被征服地。以宰相尼札姆·穆勒克為首,帝國的軍政要職大多由波斯人把持,「伊克塔」制的推行側面象徵突厥人缺乏管理領地行政的意願。另外,由於宗教政策的緣故,波斯人與伊斯瑪儀派的關係也持續惡化,阿薩辛等極端派系也隨之出現。

1092年底,馬立克沙一世與尼札姆的政爭爆發,多方政治、宗教勢力介入之下,兩人在不到一個月的時間內接連被刺殺。權力的真空使帝國陷入分裂,繼承人間為爭奪王位紛紛佔地為王,基利傑阿爾斯蘭一世統治著安納托利亞的羅姆蘇丹國突突什一世英語Tutush I則執掌敘利亞,耶路薩冷重新為法提瑪王朝掌控。而突突什一世於1095年死去後,其子法赫爾·穆爾克·拉德溫英語Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan杜卡克英語Duqaq (Seljuk ruler of Damascus)又分別繼承了阿勒頗大馬士革,繼承人短命與戰亂頻繁的惡性循環使帝國陷入衰退之中[32]

第一次十字軍東征之前就分裂為若干勢力的塞爾柱帝國,在面對歐洲人攻擊時疲於應對,基利傑阿爾斯蘭一世便於尼西亞埃斯基謝希爾等地陷入苦戰,無力阻止十字軍的步伐。最終,塞爾柱人喪失了地中海沿岸的大部分領土。

滅亡[編輯]

1141年,西遼卡特萬之戰擊敗塞爾柱帝國,使塞爾柱失去了對中亞的控制。

1153年,烏古斯人擒獲蘇丹艾哈邁德·桑賈爾,並攻下古都內沙布爾,塞爾柱失去對波斯的控制,實際領土退縮至伊拉克亞塞拜然一帶。

1194年,花剌子模國王塔乞失哈馬丹打敗塞爾柱末代蘇丹圖赫里勒三世,塞爾柱帝國滅亡,版圖併入花剌子模王朝。1243年,蒙古帝國入侵小亞細亞,蒙古大將拜住克塞山戰役中擊潰羅姆蘇丹國的軍隊,從此羅姆蘇丹國淪為蒙古伊兒汗國的藩屬。1299年羅姆蘇丹國發生分裂,1307年從歷史記錄上消失。

統治者列表[編輯]

自馬立克沙一世遇刺後,長期內戰使獨立政權在伊拉克亞塞拜然等地頻繁出現,本表僅列出實際控制波斯地區的蘇丹:

蘇丹 統治年期 註解
圖赫里勒·貝格 1037年-1063年 與胞弟恰格勒·貝格採行雙元統治。
阿爾普·阿爾斯蘭 1063年-1072年
馬立克沙一世 1072年-1092年
馬哈茂德一世英語Mahmud I of Great Seljuq 1092年-1094年
巴爾基雅魯克 1094年-1105年
馬立克沙二世英語Malik-Shah II 1105年 控制區很小,被犬絕
穆罕默德一世英語Muhammad I Tapar 1105年-1117年 實際掌權者為其兄桑賈爾。
艾哈邁德·桑賈爾 1117年-1153年

參考資料[編輯]

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