国民运动

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國技National sport, national pastime, national game)是指一個國家特有或具代表性的競技運動,多指體育運動。然而國技的定義並不嚴密,既有公認概念上的國技(如美國的棒球),也有通過法律具體規定的(如加拿大就法定袋棍球和冰球為國技),也因此使得國技並不一定是該國最具人氣或強項的體育。除了加拿大之外,世界上通過法律確定國技的還有巴哈馬的帆船、孟加拉的卡巴迪、巴西的卡波那拉、斯里蘭卡的排球等。

定義[编辑]

國技的定義並不十分嚴格,有在法律上具體規定的競技運動,享有官方認可的地位;也有在國家文化中有特殊意義,深受國民愛戴的競技運動。由國家文化發展而成的競技運動是成為國技的其中一項條件,但並不全然如此,某些源自外國的競技運動也有可能因為深受國民的愛戴,或者具有特殊的意義,成為公認的國技。一般只要符合以下兩項要點,都會被認定為是國技:

國家法令指定的競技運動,給予特殊的地位和待遇
例如:加拿大的長曲棍球(夏季)和冰上曲棍球(冬季)
國家或民族文化中特有的競技運動,或者是有某種特殊意義的競技運動
例如:日本的相撲、韓國的跆拳道、中國的乒乓球、西班牙的鬥牛

除了上述兩項,某些廣泛普及的競技運動,雖然不是公認的國技,但已經深植入於國家的體育文化當中,成為深受全民歡迎的休閒活動,所以經常是被極力推廣的國家體育項目,例如:世界各地的足球、英聯邦國家的板球、美國的籃球、日本的棒球、香港的賽馬、台灣的腳踏車、馬來西亞的羽毛球等。

國技列表[编辑]

法定的國技[编辑]

國家 體育運動 始於
 阿根廷 帕托英语Pato 1953年[1]
 巴哈马 史路普帆船 1993年[2]
 孟加拉国 卡巴迪 1972年[3]
 巴西 卡波耶拉 1972年[4]
 加拿大 長曲棍球(夏季運動)、冰上曲棍球(冬季運動) 1994年[5]
 智利 智利牛仔騎術英语Chilean rodeo 1962年[6]
 哥伦比亚 特茹英语Tejo (sport) 2000年[7]
 伊朗 伊朗傳統摔角 1976年[8]
 墨西哥 墨西哥牛仔競技英语Charrería 1933年[9]
 菲律賓 卡里艾斯奎瑪武術英语Eskrima 2009年[10]
 波多黎各 巴蘇馬術英语Paso Fino 1966年[11]
 斯里蘭卡 排球 1991年[12]
 乌拉圭 高喬傳統競技 2006年[13]

公認的國技[编辑]

國家 體育運動
 阿富汗 布玆卡兹[14]
 安圭拉 競速帆艇英语Yacht racing[15]
 安地卡及巴布達 板球[16]
 巴巴多斯 板球[17]
 百慕大 板球[18]
 不丹 不丹傳統箭術英语Archery in Bhutan[19]
 古巴 棒球[20][21][22]
 多米尼加 棒球[23]
 芬兰 芬蘭棒球英语Pesäpallo[24]
 格瑞那達 板球[25]
 圭亚那 板球[26]
 印度 曲棍球[27][28][29]
 以色列 足球[30]
 爱尔兰 Gaelic games[31][32][33]
 牙买加 板球[34]
 日本 相撲[35]
 韩国 跆拳道[36]
 拉脫維亞 籃球(夏季運動)、冰上曲棍球(冬季運動)[37]
 立陶宛 籃球[38][39]
 马达加斯加 橄欖球[40][41]
 紐西蘭 橄欖球[42]
 挪威 越野滑雪[43][44]
 巴基斯坦 曲棍球[45]
 巴布亚新几内亚 聯盟式橄欖球[46][47]
秘魯 秘鲁 Paleta Frontón[48]
 羅馬尼亞 Oină[49]
 俄羅斯 班迪球[50]
 苏格兰 高爾夫球[51]
 斯洛維尼亞 高山滑雪[52][52]
 土耳其 摔角[53] & Cirit[54]
 特克斯與凱科斯群島 板球[55]
 美國 棒球[56][57]
 威尔士 橄欖球[58]

另見[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Argentina Decree Nº 17468 of 16 September 1953. Federación Argentina de Pato. [16 October 2012]. 
  2. ^ Craton, Michael; Gail Saunders. Islanders in the Stream: A History of the Bahamian People. University of Georgia Press. 1998. 471. ISBN 0-8203-2284-9. 
  3. ^ Banglapedia: Kabadi. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. [21 July 2008]. "Ha-du-du was given the name kabadi and the status of National Game in 1972." [失效連結]
  4. ^ Lowell, John. Ring of Liberation: Deceptive Discourse in Brazilian Capoeira. University of Chicago Press. 1992. 61. ISBN 0-226-47683-9. 
  5. ^ National Sports of Canada Act S.C. 1994, c. 16, Justice Laws Website, National Government of Canada
  6. ^ Moreira Recchione, Alberto. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile. Revista de urbanismo (University of Chile). 2007.December, (17) [14 July 2008]. ISSN 0717-5051 (Spanish). "A reconocerse, en 1962, el rodeo como deporte nacional y oficial [10 de enero de 1962, oficio N°269 del Consejo Nacional de Deportes y Comité Olímpico de Chile]" 
  7. ^ Colombia Law 613 of 4 September 2000. Global Legal Information Network. [14 July 2008]. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ La Charrería "Nuestro Deporte Nacional". Mexican Department of Tourism. [14 July 2008] (Spanish). "El año de 1933 fue muy importante, ya que el general Abelardo L. Rodríguez, emite un decreto presidencial, dando a la Charrería el título de único Deporte Nacional." 
  10. ^ Republic Act No. 9850: An Act declaring Arnis as the national martial art and sport of the Philippines. [26 June 2010]. 
  11. ^ Puerto Rico Act 64 of 2000, S.B. 1856 (PDF). Office of Legislative Services of Puerto Rico. 1. 11 April 2000 [14 July 2008]. "In 1966, the Public Parks and Recreation Administration and the Puerto Rico Olympic Committee awarded official recognition of the “paso fino” horse riding sport as the autochthonous sport of Puerto Rico." 
  12. ^ Fernando, Leslie. Sponsors President's Gold Cup tourney: Dialog assures future of VB. Daily News (Sri Lanka). 3 June 2005 [14 July 2008]. "Way back in 1991 volleyball was declared as the national sport of Sri Lanka but it was only name sake." 
  13. ^ Uruguay Law 17958 of 21 April 2006. Global Legal Information Network. [14 July 2008]. 
  14. ^ Buzkashi: The National Game of Afghanis. Embassy of Afghanistan, Canberra. [21 July 2008]. 
  15. ^ Boat Racing Season Officially Opens. The Anguillian. 3 March 2007 [21 July 2008]. "Director of Sports, Alkins Rogers, [...] reported that the Government recognizes boat racing as the national sport of Anguilla and was giving financial resources for its development." 
  16. ^ Antiguans and Barbudans. everyculture.com. [10 July 2008]. "Cricket, a left-over from the British rule, is the national sport of Antigua and Barbuda." 
  17. ^ Barbados: Sports. Government of Barbados. [21 July 2008]. "The national sport of Barbados is cricket" 
  18. ^ Luke, Will. Cricket by association. The Wisden Cricketer. 2007.March [21 July 2008]. "Bermuda are one of the few sides who count cricket as a national sport." 
  19. ^ National Symbols. Bhutan Portal. Government of Bhutan. [21 July 2008]. "National Game: The national sport of Bhutan is archery." 
  20. ^ Gonzalez Echevarria, Roberto. A Cuban Belle Époque//The Pride of Havana: A History of Cuban Baseball. Oxford University Press. 1999: 76. ISBN 0-19-514605-0. "Baseball is so ingrained in Cuba that it has thrived as the "national sport" through forty years of a bitterly anti-American revolution." 
  21. ^ Mckinley, James C., Jr. Baseball; Clash of Cultures, Pride and Passion. The New York Times. 26 March 1999 [24 July 2008]. "Most Cubans, after all, consider baseball to be their national sport, a game entwined in history with their struggle for independence from Spain and the birth of their nation." 
  22. ^ Castro, Fidel. Speech at a meeting with Pan American Games delegation members. cuba.cu. 13 August 1999 [24 July 2008]. "the game that [...] is [...] our national sport [...] I am talking of baseball" 
  23. ^ Some facts about the Dominican Republic. Embassy of the Dominican Republic, Washington. [22 July 2008]. "Baseball is the Dominican Republic’s national sport." 
  24. ^ About Finland: General information: Sports. Embassy of Finland, Washington. 11 June 2007 [21 July 2008]. "the national sport, “pesäpallo”" [失效連結]
  25. ^ Batting For Grenada. Grenada Life. Grenada Board of Tourism. 38. 2007.March [21 July 2008]. "in the first Grenada Cricket Classics [, h]eroes such as Sir Viv Richards, Joel Garner and Curtley Ambrose came together to promote what is considered by many to be the national sport in Grenada." 
  26. ^ Games. Guyana Tourism Authority. [21 July 2008]. (原始内容存档于6 June 2008). "Cricket lovely Cricket! One cannot miss out on Guyana’s national sport without participating in a game of cricket while in Guyana." 
  27. ^ Basra, Sukhwant. No National status, except in NCERT textbooks. dnaindia. 11 March 2008 [15 July 2008]. "The status of hockey as the national sport is not enshrined in any official proclamation by the Government of India. The NCERT textbook for Class XI does [...] state that India’s national game is hockey and that, in a way, does make for an official take on the issue." 
  28. ^ Citizens: Sports: Hockey. National Portrait of India. Government of India. [22 July 2008]. "Hockey, the National Sport of the Country is one of the most religiously followed games in India." [失效連結]
  29. ^ A 2012 article in the India Times argued that hockey is no longer the national sport: Mahanta, Bhaskar. What is the National Game of India?. India Times. 28 September 2012 [7 May 2013]. 
  30. ^ Football in Israel. AsiaRooms. 21 February 2011 [24 February 2012]. "The popularity of Football in Israel is sky-high and is the most popular sport of the nation by a distance. Football in Israel is the unofficial national sport of the nation and developed as an organized sport in the country during the period when the British controlled the administration or was the days of the British Mandate." 
  31. ^ RTÉ Secures Comprehensive GAA Championship Coverage Until 2010. RTÉ Online. 19 February 2008 [29 April 2009]. "Today's announcement ensures that the public will enjoy quality coverage of our national games across all of RTÉ's media platforms." 
  32. ^ Adjournment Matters. - Eurathlon Programme.. Seanad Éireann. Volume 145. 22 November 1995 [29 April 2009]. 
  33. ^ Farrelly, Hugh. The most progressive team in Ireland. Scrum.com. 15 September 2009 [17 September 2009]. "It's [the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final] a big deal in Ireland, where Gaelic games are the national sport, but the problem for the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) is that no-one outside the country, save for committed expatriates, gives a fig." 
  34. ^ History of Jamaica. Jamaican Embassy, Washington. [21 July 2008]. "The legacy of Britain also lives on in Jamaica in many ways [...] the game of cricket is the national sport." 
  35. ^ What Is Sumo?. Kids Web Japan sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. [30 April 2012]. 
  36. ^ Li, MacIntosh, Bravo. International Sport Management. 2012. 208. ISBN 9780736082730. "Taekwondo is Korea's national sport" 
  37. ^ (拉脱维亚文) Nacionālie sporta veidi.... [15 November 2009]. 
  38. ^ Adamkus, Valdas. Address at Charles University, Prague. President of Lithuania official website. 28 July 2005 [24 July 2008]. "Lithuania is a country that loves basketball. It is our national sport and we are proud to be reigning European Champions." [失效連結]
  39. ^ Winn, Luke. Lithuania Calling. Sports Illustrated. 15 August 2011 [24 August 2011]. "Basketball is the only sport the 3.2 million Lithuanians truly care about—it's their second religion, after Catholicism—and their success is proportionately stunning." 
  40. ^ Madagascar take Sevens honours. [24 July 2012]. 
  41. ^ 14-place jump for Madagascar. [24 July 2012]. 
  42. ^ Sport, Fitness and Leisure. New Zealand Official Yearbook. Statistics New Zealand. 2000 [21 July 2008]. "Traditionally New Zealanders have excelled in rugby union, which is regarded as the national sport, and track and field athletics." 
  43. ^ Mølster, Odd. Skiing and the Creation of a Norwegian Identity - part 2. News of Norway, issue 2. Norwegian Embassy, Washington. 1996 [21 July 2008]. "the national sport could become a fine weapon in time of war. In 1943, Norway's resistance movement won an epochal victory – on skis, of course" 
  44. ^ Berglund, Nina. Few cheers for Norway. Aftenposten. 20 February 2006 [21 July 2008]. "The scoreboard shows how the Norwegians placed, a performance considered much too poor in a country where cross-country skiing is a national sport." 
  45. ^ Sport in Pakistan. [6 October 2012]. 
  46. ^ PNG vow to upset World Cup odds. Rugby League. Federación Peruana de Frontón. 15 October 2008 [3 July 2009]. "But it would still be one of the biggest shocks in World Cup history if Papua New Guinea - the only country to have rugby league as its national sport - were to qualify for the last four." 
  47. ^ PNG seal 2010 Four Nations place. BBC. 1 November 2009. 
  48. ^ Paleta-Frontón. Club Regatas Lima. Club Regatas Lima. 31 August 2009 [31 August 2009]. 
  49. ^ Oina - sportul naţional uitat. Adevărul Holding. 18 September 2010 [21 November 2012] (Romanian). "Dar nici deciziile luate de autorităţile comuniste nu au salvat sportul naţional românesc de la uitare." 
  50. ^ Russian bandy players blessed for victory at world championship in Kazan. Tatar-Inform. 21 January 2011 [31 August 2009]. 
  51. ^ Alex Salmond quote. Sport Scotland. 31 August 2009 [25 October 2010]. 
  52. ^ 52.0 52.1 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1754-9469.2007.tb00118.x/abstract
  53. ^ Ata Sporu - Güreş. Alaturka.info. [31 December 2009]. [失效連結]
  54. ^ Ata Sporu - Cirit. Kalem.biz. [31 December 2009]. 
  55. ^ ICC Members: Turks and Caicos Islands. International Cricket Council. [7 October 2012]. 
  56. ^ Duquette, Jerold J. Regulating the National Pastime: Baseball and Antitrust. Greenwood. 1999. 104 [21 July 2008]. ISBN 0-275-96535-X. "Baseball justified its privileged legal status by citing the special nature and cultural significance of America's national pastime." 
  57. ^ Schrag, Myles. Baseball as National Pastime Revisted: And a Little Town Shall Lead Them//In Peter Carino. Baseball/literature/culture: Essays, 1995-2001. McFarland. 2003. Chp.13 p.140 [21 July 2008]. ISBN 0-7864-1643-2. "Tradition – that quality so instrumental in elevating baseball to its century-old status as national pastime— has become less important" 
  58. ^ Harris, John. (Re)Presenting Wales: National Identity and Celebrity in the Postmodern Rugby World. North American Journal of Welsh Studies (North American Association for the Study of Welsh Culture and History). Summer 2006, 6 (2) [14 July 2008]. "rugby used to be the undisputed national sport of Wales [...] Rugby Union’s assumed position as ”the national game” has often been questioned on the basis that it is predominantly a game played and followed in South Wales."