第一次世界大战期间的德国

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1950年来的德意志联邦共和国国徽

第一次世界大戰期間,德意志帝國是最终战败的同盟國之一。 在盟國奧匈帝國塞爾維亞宣戰之後,它開始參與大战。除了1914年東普魯士入侵的短暫時期之外,德國本土在大部分时间中仍相對免受廣泛入侵。皇家海軍实施的嚴密封鎖導致了德国城市的嚴重食物短缺,尤其是在1916-17年冬季。戰爭結束時,德國的失敗和廣泛的民眾不滿引發了1918-19年的德國革命,这场革命最终推翻了君主制並建立了魏瑪共和國

1914年,與歐洲其他國家的人民類似,德國人民以復雜的情緒應對戰爭爆發。最近的研究挑戰了人们普遍怀有熱情(1914年精神)的理论[1]。由容克地主統治的德國政府將戰爭視為結束被敵對國家法國俄羅斯英國包圍的一種方式。外交大臣伯恩哈德·馮·比洛指出,戰爭是为了使該國獲得“太陽下的一席之地”,公眾普遍的民族主義很容易支持這一點。德國當局希望戰爭能夠使公眾作为君主制國家團結起來,並減輕由德國社會民主黨的迅速發展所帶來的威脅,德國社會民主黨曾是戰前德國帝国议会中最有影响力的政党。儘管德國社會民主黨加入了第二國際,但它結束了與帝國政府的分歧,放棄了國際主義原則,反而來支持戰爭。

事情很快证明,德國沒有為這場持續數月之久的戰爭做好準備。最初,在德国戰時基礎上沒有採取任何措施來調節經濟。而且在整個戰爭中,德國戰爭經濟的組織狀況仍然很糟糕。德國依賴食品和原材料的進口,但这由於英國對德國的封鎖而被迫终止。首先限制糧食價格,然後實行定量配給。1915年,德国为了生產糧食和保存穀物,猪猡屠杀中屠殺了500萬頭豬。 1916/17年的冬天被稱為“蘿蔔冬天”,因為馬鈴薯收成不好,人們开始吃動物的食物,包括品蘿蔔。在1914年8月至1919年中旬的戰爭中,由於營養不良,疲憊不堪,疾病和絕望率高而導致的平民死亡人數約有474,000人[2][3]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Jeffrey Verhey, The Spirit of 1914: Militarism, Myth and Mobilization in Germany (Cambridge U.P., 2000).
  2. ^ N.P. Howard, "The Social and Political Consequences of the Allied Food Blockade of Germany, 1918-19," German History (1993), 11#2, pp. 161-88 online p. 166, with 271,000 excess deaths in 1918 and 71,000 in 1919.
  3. ^ Hew Strachan. World War 1. Oxford University Press. 1998: 125. ISBN 9780198206149.  已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Watson, Alexander. Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I (2014), excerpt

军事[编辑]

  • Cecil, Lamar, Wilhelm II: Emperor and Exile, 1900-1941 II, Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press: 176, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8078-2283-8, OCLC 186744003 
  • Chickering, Roger, et al. eds. Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front, 1914-1918 (Publications of the German Historical Institute) (2000). ISBN 0-521-77352-0. 584 pgs.
  • Cowin, Hugh W. German and Austrian Aviation of World War I: A Pictorial Chronicle of the Airmen and Aircraft That Forged German Airpower (2000). Osprey Pub Co. ISBN 1-84176-069-2. 96 pgs.
  • Cruttwell, C.R.M.F. A History of the Great War: 1914-1918 (1935) ch 15-29 online free
  • Cross, Wilbur, Zeppelins of World War I, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55778-382-0 
  • Herwig, Holger H. The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914-1918 (1996), mostly military
  • Horne, John, ed. A Companion to World War I (2012)
  • Hubatsch, Walther; Backus, Oswald P, Germany and the Central Powers in the World War, 1914–1918, Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, 1963, OCLC 250441891 
  • Kitchen, Martin. The Silent Dictatorship: The Politics of the German High Command under Hindenburg and Ludendorff, 1916–1918 (London: Croom Helm, 1976)
  • Morrow, John. German Air Power in World War I (U. of Nebraska Press, 1982); Contains design and production figures, as well as economic influences.
  • Sheldon, Jack. The German Army on the Somme: 1914 - 1916. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books Ltd. 2005. ISBN 978-1-84415-269-8. 

The militarism mean the countries need to develop military or army levels From 1880 to 1914,the military expenditure of the six bog powers(viz.Germany,Russia,Austria,Italy,France,and Britain)

国内战线[编辑]

  • Allen, Keith. "Sharing Scarcity: Bread Rationing and the First World War in Berlin, 1914– 1923," Journal of Social History (1998), 32#2, pp. 371–96.
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  • Bell, Archibald. A History of the Blockade of Germany and the Countries Associated with Her in the Great War, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, 1914–1918 (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1937)
  • Broadberry, Stephen and Mark Harrison, eds. The Economics of World War I (2005) ISBN 0-521-85212-9. Covers France, UK, USA, Russia, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and the Netherlands
  • Burchardt, Lothar. “The Impact of the War Economy on the Civilian Population of Germany during the First and the Second World Wars," in The German Military in the Age of Total War, edited by Wilhelm Deist, 40–70. Leamington Spa: Berg, 1985.
  • Chickering, Roger. Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914–1918 (1998), wide-ranging survey
  • Daniel, Ute. The War from Within: German Working-Class Women in the First World War (1997)
  • Dasey, Robyn. "Women's Work and the Family: Women Garment Workers in Berlin and Hamburg before the First World War," in The German Family: Essays on the Social History of the Family in Nineteenth-and Twentieth-Century Germany, edited by Richard J. Evans and W. R. Lee, (London: Croom Helm, 1981), pp. 221–53.
  • Davis, Belinda J. Home Fires Burning: Food, Politics, and Everyday Life in World War I Berlin (2000) online edition
  • Dobson, Sean. Authority and Upheaval in Leipzig, 1910–1920 (2000).
  • Domansky, Elisabeth. "Militarization and Reproduction in World War I Germany," in Society, Culture, and the State in Germany, 1870–1930, edited by Geoff Eley, (University of Michigan Press, 1996), pp. 427–64.
  • Donson, Andrew. "Why did German youth become fascists? Nationalist males born 1900 to 1908 in war and revolution," Social History, Aug2006, Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 337–358
  • Feldman, Gerald D. "The Political and Social Foundations of Germany's Economic Mobilization, 1914-1916," Armed Forces & Society (1976), 3#1, pp. 121–145. online
  • Feldman, Gerald. Army, Industry, and Labor in Germany, 1914–1918 (1966)
  • Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War (1999), cultural and economic themes, worldwide
  • Hardach, Gerd. The First World War 1914-1918 (1977), economics
  • Herwig, Holger H. The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914-1918 (1996), one third on the homefront
  • Howard, N.P. "The Social and Political Consequences of the Allied Food Blockade of Germany, 1918-19," German History (1993), 11#2, pp. 161–88 online
  • Kocka, Jürgen. Facing total war: German society, 1914-1918 (1984). online at ACLS e-books
  • Lee, Joe. "German Administrators and Agriculture during the First World War," in War and Economic Development, edited by Jay M. Winter. (Cambridge UP, 1922).
  • Lutz, Ralph Haswell. The German revolution, 1918-1919 (1938) a brief survey online free
  • Marquis, H. G. "Words as Weapons: Propaganda in Britain and Germany during the First World War." Journal of Contemporary History (1978) 12: 467–98.
  • McKibbin, David. War and Revolution in Leipzig, 1914–1918: Socialist Politics and Urban Evolution in a German City (University Press of America, 1998).
  • Moeller, Robert G. "Dimensions of Social Conflict in the Great War: A View from the Countryside," Central European History (1981), 14#2, pp. 142–68.
  • Moeller, Robert G. German Peasants and Agrarian Politics, 1914–1924: The Rhineland and Westphalia (1986). online edition
  • Offer, Avner. The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation (1991), on food supply of Britain and Germany
  • Osborne, Eric. Britain's Economic Blockade of Germany, 1914-1919 (2004)
  • Richie, Alexandra. Faust's Metropolis: a History of Berlin (1998), pp. 234–83.
  • Ryder, A. J. The German Revolution of 1918 (Cambridge University Press, 1967)
  • Siney, Marion. The Allied Blockade of Germany, 1914–1916 (1957)
  • Steege, Paul. Black Market, Cold War: Everyday Life in Berlin, 1946-1949 (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Terraine, John. "'An Actual Revolutionary Situation': In 1917 there was little to sustain German morale at home," History Today (1978), 28#1, pp. 14–22, online
  • Tobin, Elizabeth. "War and the Working Class: The Case of Düsseldorf, 1914–1918," Central European History (1985), 13#3, pp. 257–98
  • Triebel, Armin. "Consumption in Wartime Germany," in The Upheaval of War: Family, Work, and Welfare in Europe, 1914–1918 edited by Richard Wall and Jay M. Winter, (Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 159–96.
  • Usborne, Cornelie. "Pregnancy Is a Woman's Active Service," in The Upheaval of War: Family, Work, and Welfare in Europe, 1914–1918 edited by Richard Wall and Jay M. Winter, (Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 289–416.
  • Verhey, Jeffrey. The Spirit of 1914: Militarism, Myth, and Mobilization in Germany (2006) excerpt
  • Welch, David. Germany and Propaganda in World War I: Pacifism, Mobilization and Total War (IB Tauris, 2014)
  • Winter, Jay, and Jean-Louis Robert, eds. Capital Cities at War: Paris, London, Berlin 1914-1919 (2 vol. 1999, 2007), 30 chapters 1200pp; comprehensive coverage by scholars vol 1 excerpt; vol 2 excerpt and text search
  • Winter, Jay. Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History (1995)
  • Ziemann, Benjamin. War Experiences in Rural Germany, 1914-1923 (Berg, 2007) online edition

一手资料[编辑]

  • Gooch, P. G. Recent Revelations Of European Diplomacy (1940). pp3–100
  • Lutz, Ralph Haswell, ed. Fall of the German Empire, 1914–1918 (2 vol 1932). 868pp online review, primary sources

外部链接[编辑]