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Linux发行版比较

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从技术方面来说,Linux发行版的不同之处在于支持的硬件设备和系统或者软件包配置不同。由于历史原因,不同的组织也会导致不同的发行版。其他的原因有安全性方面的,如安全更新的频率;软件包管理的易用性;可用软件包的数量。

这些表格根据客观的准则比较了一些值得注意的发行版的最新稳定版。不包含操作系统的主观评价,标记为不稳定或测试版的分支以及Linux发行版与其他操作系统的比较。

概况[编辑]

各发行版的基本信息:创造者或生产者,发行日期,最新版本等等。

发行版 创造者 维护者 首次公开发行年份 最新稳定版本 Security updates (years) 最近更新日期 System distribution commitment 基础发行版 目的 Cost 状态
Alpine Linux Alpine Linux Team Alpine Linux Team 2006 3.11.3[1] ? 2019-06-13 X LEAF Project security, lightweight, general Gratis 活跃
ALT Linux ALT Linux Team ALT Linux Team, ALT Linux LLC 2001 9.0[2] ? 2019-10-28 X Mandrake Linux general, school Gratis 活跃
antiX Anticapitalista Anticapitalista 2007 19[3] ? 2019-10-17 X Debian, MEPIS old computers Some editions are gratis 活跃
ArchBang Willensky Aristide Stan McLaren 2011 Rolling Rolling ? X Arch Linux (UKM Edition) general Gratis 活跃
Arch Linux Judd Vinet dev team 2002 Rolling Rolling Rolling X Independent, inspired from CRUX general Gratis 活跃
BLAG Brixton Linux Action Group Brixton Linux Action Group 2002 140k ? 2011-05-04 100% Free: GNU FSDG Fedora desktop Gratis 不活跃
Bodhi Linux Bodhi Linux Team Bodhi Linux Team 2011 5.0.0[4] ? 2018-08-22 X Debian, Ubuntu desktop, lightweight Gratis 活跃
Canaima CANTV / CNTI / CENTIDEL / Edelca / VIT / FUNDACITE / Free software community CANTV / CNTI / CENTIDEL / Edelca / VIT / FUNDACITE / Free software community 2007 6.0[5] ? 2018-03-19 X Debian, Ubuntu Government of Venezuela Gratis 活跃
CentOS CentOS Project CentOS Project 2003 8.0-1905 10 years[6] 2019-10-16 X Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) server, workstation Gratis 活跃
Chakra Jan Mette and Arch Linux KDEmod developers The Chakra Project Team 2010 Rolling Rolling ? X Arch Linux[7] desktop Gratis 活跃
Chrome OS Sundar Pichai Google 2009 75.0.3770.129[8] 6.5 years[9] 2019-07-09 X Chromium OS web applications Gratis 活跃
ClearOS Peter Baldwin ClearFoundation 2000 7.6.0[10] ? 2019-05-09 X RHEL, CentOS server, gateway, network Some editions are gratis 活跃
CrunchBang Linux Philip Newborough Philip Newborough 2008 11[11] ? 2013-05-06 X Debian desktop Gratis 不活跃
Damn Small Linux John Andrews dev team 2003 4.4.10[12] ? 2008-11-18 X Debian, Knoppix lightweight, portable Gratis 不活跃
Debian Ian Murdock Debian Project 1993 10.3[13] ~3 years[g 1] 2020-02-09 Debian Social Contract and DFSG (main is 100% free, non-free packages are optional)[14] Softlanding Linux System (SLS)[15] general, server, desktop Gratis 活跃
Debian Edu Debian Project 2004 10.3[16] ~3 years[g 1] 2020-02-08 Debian Social Contract and DFSG Debian schools Gratis 活跃
Devuan The "Veteran Unix Admins" (VUA) The "Veteran Unix Admins" (VUA) 2016 2.1[17] ? 2019-11-25 X [18] Debian general Gratis 活跃
Deepin Wuhan Deepin Technology Co., Ltd. Wuhan Deepin Technology Co., Ltd. 2004 15.11[19] ? 2019-07-05 ? Debian(current), Ubuntu, Morphix(formerly) general Gratis 活跃
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre Matias A. Fonzo Matias A. Fonzo 2009 3.0-beta1[20] ? 2019-10-16 100% Free: GNU FSDG Independent, inspired from Slackware general Gratis 活跃
dyne:bolic Jaromil Jaromilx 2005 3.0.0 ? 2011-09-08 100% Free: GNU FSDG Debian multimedia Gratis 不活跃
Elementary OS Daniel Foré elementary LLC 2011 5.1.2[21] ? 2020-02-05 X Ubuntu, Debian general Gratis 活跃
ELinOS SYSGO SYSGO 1999 6.2[22] ? 2017-10-01 X embedded systems 部份 活跃
Emdebian Grip Embedded Debian Project Embedded Debian Project 2009 3.1 End-of-life 2013-06-15 X Debian embedded systems Gratis 不活跃
EndeavourOS Bryan Poerwoatmodjo EndeavourOS 2019 Rolling Rolling 2019-07-15 X Arch Linux general Gratis 活跃
Fedora Fedora Project Fedora Project 2003 31[23] 1 year 2019-10-29 Fedora Licensing Guidelines[24] Red Hat Linux general Gratis 活跃
Freespire Lindows.com, Inc. PC/OpenSystems LLC 2001 6.0[25] ? 2020-02-10 X Ubuntu desktop Gratis 活跃
Gentoo Linux Daniel Robbins Gentoo Foundation, Inc. 2002 Rolling Rolling Rolling Gentoo Social Contract Enoch Linux general Gratis 活跃
Guix Ludovic Courtès Ludovic Courtès, Ricardo Wurmus, the Guix community 2012 1.0.1[26] Rolling 2019-05-02 100% Free: GNU FSDG general Gratis 活跃
gNewSense Brian Brazil and Paul O'Malley Sam Geeraerts with sponsorship from the FSF 2006 4.0 (Ucclia)[27] ? 2016-05-02 100% Free: GNU FSDG Debian general, server Gratis 活跃
gnuLinEx Regional Government of Extremadura dev team 2002 LinEx 2013 ? 2013-02-11 X Debian desktop Gratis 不活跃
Grml Michael Prokop The Grml Team 2005 2018.12[28] ? 2018-12-31 X Debian live, maintenance, security, network, forensic, accessibility Gratis 活跃
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre Hyperbola Founders Hyperbola Founders 2017 0.3[29] 3 years (stable), 5 years (old stable)[30] 2019-09-23 100% Free: GNU FSDG followed in Hyperbola Social Contract Arch Linux general Gratis 活跃
Instant WebKiosk Marco Buratto Binary Emotions 2012 16.0[31] ? 2017-04-05 X Debian web kiosks, digital signage, personal web navigation Gratis 活跃
Kali Linux Max Moser, Mati Aharoni, Martin J. Muench Offensive Security 2013 2020.1[32] ? 2020-01-28 X Debian auditing, forensic, security, network Gratis 活跃
Knoppix Klaus Knopper dev team 2000 8.6[33] ? 2019-08-08 X Debian live Gratis 活跃
Kodibuntu The XBMC Project Team Kodi 2008 ? ? ? X Debian, Ubuntu multimedia Gratis 不活跃
Korora Chris Smart Dev Team 2005 26[34] ? 2017-09-16 X Fedora desktop Gratis 不活跃
LibreCMC LibreCMC team LibreCMC team 2010 1.4.8[35] ? 2019-06-30 100% Free: GNU FSDG Merged from LibreWRT embedded systems Gratis 活跃
Linspire Linspire, Inc. Linspire, Inc. 2001 8.5[36] ? 2019-10-31 X Ubuntu ? Commercial[37] 活跃
Linux Mint Clement Lefebvre dev team 2006 19.3[38] ~3 years (LMDE); 5 years (main editions) 2019-08-02 X Debian(LMDE), Ubuntu (main editions) desktop Gratis 活跃
Linux Lite Jerry Bezencon Linux Lite Team 2012 4.8[39] ? 2020-01-14 X Ubuntu desktop Gratis 活跃
Mageia Mageia Community mageia.org 2010 7.1[40] 1 year 2019-07-01 X Mandriva Linux general Gratis 活跃
Mandriva Linux Mandrakesoft S.A. Mandriva S.A. 1998 2011 ? 2011-08-28 X Red Hat Linux general Some editions are gratis 不活跃
Manjaro Linux Roland Singer dev team 2012[41] Rolling Rolling Rolling X Arch Linux general Gratis 活跃
MEPIS Warren Woodford MEPIS LLC 2003 11.9.90 ? ? X Debian desktop, server Gratis 不活跃
Musix GNU+Linux Musix team Musix team 2008 3.0.1 ? 2014-03-13 100% Free: GNU FSDG Debian multimedia Gratis 活跃
Netrunner Blue Systems dev team 2009 20.01[42] as per Debian 2020-02-23 X Debian desktop Gratis 活跃
NixOS Eelco Dolstra and Armijn Hemel NixOS Foundation 2003 19.09[43] 0.5 years 2019-05-02 X general, server, desktop Gratis 活跃
Novell Open Enterprise Server Novell Novell, Inc. dev team 2003 OES 2018 SP1 ? ? X SUSE Linux Enterprise Server server Commercial[44] 活跃
OpenELEC Stephan Raue, OpenELEC Team OpenELEC Team 2011 8.0.4 ? 2017-06-04 X Kodi multimedia Gratis 不活跃
openSUSE SUSE Linux openSUSE Project 2006 Leap 15.1[45] 3 years[46] 2019-05-22 X general, desktop Gratis 活跃
OpenWrt ? OpenWrt team 2007 18.06.4[47] ? 2019-07-01 X embedded systems Gratis 活跃
OpenMandriva Lx OpenMandriva Association OpenMandriva Association 2013 4.1 ? 2020-02-01 100% Free: GNU FSDG Mandriva Linux general Gratis 活跃
Oracle Linux Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation 2006 8.1[48] ? 2019-11-17 X Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) server Gratis 活跃
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Parabola Hackers Parabola Hackers 2009 Rolling[49] Rolling 2017-05-28 100% Free: GNU FSDG followed in Parabola Social Contract Arch Linux general Gratis 活跃
Pardus Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) TÜBİTAK 2005 19.1[50] ? 2019-11-23 X Gentoo (2011.2)
Debian
general Gratis 活跃
Parsix Alan Baghumian Parsix Project 2005 8.15 ? 2017-01-25 X Debian desktop Gratis 不活跃
Parted Magic Patrick Verner Parted Magic LLC. ? 2019_12_24 ? 2019-12-34 ? - live, maintenance Commercial[51] 活跃
PCLinuxOS Bill Reynolds dev team 2003 2019.06[52] Semi-rolling 2019-06-16 X Mandriva Linux desktop Gratis 活跃
Pop! OS Carl Ritchell System76 2017 19.10 ? 2019-10-19 X Ubuntu desktop, server, laptop Gratis 活跃
Pentoo Michael Zanetta, Rick Farina, Jens Pranaitis Pentoo 2005 2019.1 ? 2019-01-17 X Gentoo Linux auditing, security Gratis 活跃
Porteus Fanthom Porteus 2010 4.0[53] ? 2018-04-29 X Slackware lightweight, portable Gratis 活跃
Puppy Linux Barry Kauler Puppy Foundation 2003 8.0[54] ? 2019-04-11 X Independent, inspired from Vector linux lightweight, portable Gratis 活跃
Qubes OS 乔安娜·鲁特克丝卡英语Joanna Rutkowska Invisible Things Lab 2012 4.0.3[55] ? 2019-01-23 X Xen and Fedora security by compartmentalization, desktop Gratis 活跃
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Red Hat Red Hat 2002 8.0 10 years[56] 2019-05-07 X Red Hat Linux, Fedora server, workstation Commercial[57][58] 活跃
Red Hat Linux Red Hat Red Hat 1995 9 ? 2003-03-31 X server, workstation Gratis 不活跃
ROSA ? LLC NTC IT ROSA 2011 R11[59] ? 2019-03-15 X Mandriva server, general Gratis 活跃
Rocks Cluster Distribution UCSD Supercomputing Center, Clustercorp UCSD Supercomputing Center, Clustercorp 2000 7.0 ? 2015-12-01 X Red Hat Linux server, workstation Gratis 活跃
Sabayon Linux Fabio Erculiani dev team 2005 19.03[60] ? 2019-03-31 X Gentoo Linux general Gratis 活跃
Salix OS Cyrille Pontvieux, George Vlahavas, Pierrick Le Brun, Thorsten Mühlfelder Salix team 2009 14.2 ? 2016-08-29 X Slackware general Gratis ?
Scientific Linux CERN, Fermilab dev team 2004 7.6[61] ? 2018-12-03 X Red Hat Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) server, workstation Gratis 不活跃
Slackware Patrick Volkerding dev team 1993 14.2[62] ? 2016-06-30 X Softlanding Linux System (SLS) general Gratis 活跃
Slax Tomas Matejicek Tomas Matejicek 2002 9.9.1[63] ? 2019-06-17 X Debian, Slackware (until Slax 9) live Gratis 活跃
SliTaz GNU/Linux Christophe Lincoln dev team 2008 Rolling Rolling 2017-12-03 X Independent portable Gratis 活跃
Solus Ikey Doherty dev team 2005 Rolling Rolling 2020-01-25 X desktop Gratis 活跃
SolydXK Arjen Balfoort dev team 2013 201902[64] Debian packages as per Debian 2019-03-03 X Debian desktop Gratis 活跃
SparkyLinux ? Sparky Linux team 2012 5.10.1[65] ? 2020-02-05 X Debian general, video games Gratis 活跃
Source Mage GNU/Linux Ryan Abrams, Eric Schabell dev team 2002 0.62-11 ? 2017-10-22 Source Mage Social Contract Sorcerer general Gratis 活跃
SteamOS Valve Valve 2013 2.195[66] ? 2019-07-19 X Debian video games Gratis 活跃
SUSE Linux Enterprise SUSE SUSE 2000 15SP1 13 years per version[67] 2019-08-12 Common code base for x86-64, Power, System z, Arm64 Slackware, Jurix edge, workstation, server, supercomputer Commercial[68] 活跃
Tails ? Tails Development Team 2009 4.3[69] [g 2] 2020-02-11 X Debian security-focused aimed for anonymity and privacy Gratis 活跃
Tiny Core Linux Robert Shingledecker Team Tiny Core 2009 11.0 ? 2020-02-09 X Independent, inspired from Damn Small Linux portable Gratis 活跃
Tor-ramdisk Anthony G. Basile dev team 2008 20170130 ? 2017-01-30 X Gentoo Linux Embedded, uClibc Tor server Gratis 活跃
Trisquel GNU/Linux Rubén Rodríguez Pérez (quidam) Rubén Rodríguez Pérez (quidam) 2005 8.0[g 3] 5 years 2018-04-18 100% Free: GNU FSDG Ubuntu LTS desktop Gratis 活跃
TurnKey GNU/Linux Alon Swartz, Liraz Siri TurnKey GNU/Linux Team 2008 15.x[70] Debian packages as per Debian; TurnKey packages for life of current major version (plus backports per request) 2019-06-28 Debian Social Contract and DFSG Debian server based software appliance library aiming to balance security and ease of use Gratis 活跃
Ubuntu and Derivatives[71] Canonical Ltd. Canonical Ltd. 2004 19.10[72] Standard releases 1 year, LTS releases 5 years. Flavor LTS releases 3 or 5 years. 2019-10-17 X Debian general, server, desktop, supercomputer, IBM mainframe Gratis 活跃
Univention Corporate Server Univention GmbH Univention GmbH 2004 4.4[73] up to 6 months for the free Core Edition; if maintenance is purchased, it's up to 7 years, see:[74] 2019-03-12 X Debian home, business, and school Core Edition is gratis 活跃
Ututo Diego Saravia, Daniel Olivera UTUTO dev team 2000 XS 2012 ? 2012-04-27 100% Free: GNU FSDG Ututo XS: Gentoo Linux, Ututo UL: Ubuntu general Gratis 活跃
VectorLinux Robert S. Lange dev team 1999 VL 7.2[75] ? 2017-08-28 X Slackware desktop Gratis ?
Void Linux Juan Romero Pardines Juan RP and contributors 2008 Rolling Rolling 2019-11-09 X Independent, partially inspired by FreeBSD/NetBSD general Gratis 活跃
Webconverger Kai Hendry Webconverger Limited 2007 35.0 ? 2016-05-19 X Debian kiosk software, digital signage Commercial 活跃
Xandros Xandros Incorporated Xandros Incorporated 2001 ? ? 2007-07-26 X Corel Linux ? Commercial 不活跃
Zentyal eBox Technologies eBox Technologies 2005 6.1[76] ? 2019-12-12 X Debian, Ubuntu small business server Some editions are gratis ?
Zenwalk Jean-Philippe Guillemin dev team 2004 Rolling[77] ? 2018-03-09 X Slackware general Gratis 活跃
Zorin OS Zorin Group Zorin Group 2009 OS 15[78] ? 2019-06-05 X Ubuntu general, desktop ,windows & mac-like experience Zorin OS Lite & Core are free, while Business and Ultimate are paid for 活跃
发行版 创造者 维护者 首次公开发行年份 最新稳定版本 Security updates (years) 最近更新日期 System distribution commitment 基础发行版 目的 Cost 状态
  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Debian releases are officially supported for 1 year after the subsequent release, with releases being approximately 2 years apart. The Debian LTS Project provides community based support extending the complete support period to 5 years.
  2. ^ All security updates are in new versions which are released every six weeks.
  3. ^ for more information visit: https://trisquel.info/en/wiki/trisquel

技术[编辑]

下面的列表展示了默认的文件系统,但是很多Linux发行版支持一些或全部这些的文件系统 ext2, ext3, ext4, Btrfs, ReiserFS, Reiser4, JFS, XFS, GFS2, OCFS2, 和 NILFS. 在大部分文件系统上安装Linux都是可行的。ext文件系统, 以及后续的ext2, ext3, 和 ext4 都是基于最初的Linux文件系统。

File systems have been developed by companies to meet their specific needs, by hobbyists, or adapted from Unix, Microsoft Windows, and other operating systems. Linux has full support for XFS and JFS, FAT (the DOS file system), and HFS, the main file system for the Macintosh. Support for Microsoft Windows NT's NTFS file system has been developed and is now comparable with other native Unix file systems. CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs' ISO 9660 and Universal Disk Format (UDF) are supported.

Unlike other operating systems, Linux and Unix allow any file system regardless of the medium it is stored on, whether that medium is a magnetic disk, an optical disk (CD, DVD, etc.), a USB flash memory key, or even contained within a file located on another file system. Similarly, many C compilers (mainly GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)), init systems (mainly sysvinit), desktop environments and window managers are widely supported.

发行版 默认 Linux内核 默认文件系统 默认 init 守护进程 安装时可选的桌面环境窗口管理器 Reproducible builds
Alpine Linux Binary blobs ext4 openrc none
ALT Linux Binary blobs ext3 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces, Xfce
Arch Linux Binary blobs[79] none[80] systemd none
BLAG Linux-libre ext3 sysvinit GNOME
Bodhi Linux Binary blobs ext4 systemd Moksha (Enlightenment fork)
Canaima Binary blobs[79] ? systemd Cinnamon and MATE
CentOS Binary blobs[79] xfs systemd GNOME
Chakra Binary blobs ext4 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces
ClearOS Binary blobs ext3 systemd none (Web based)
Container Linux Binary blobs ext4 systemd None
CrunchBang Linux Binary blobs ext4 sysvinit Openbox
Damn Small Linux Binary blobs ext3 sysvinit JWM
Debian By default Linux-libre, but the Debian Project also hosts a non-free repository allowing blobs to be installed optionally.[79] Built with Linux-libre tools.[81] ext4 systemd GNOME, KDE, Xfce, LXDE[82] In progress[83][84]
Devuan Binary blobs ext4 sysvinit Xfce
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre Linux-libre ext4 runit Xfce
dyne:bolic Linux-libre ? systemd GNOME
Fedora Binary blobs ext4 systemd GNOME (default Workstation Edition), Spins for: KDE Plasma Workspaces, Xfce, LXDE, MATE (with Compiz), Cinnamon, Sugar on a Stick In progress[85]
Funtoo Binary blobs none openrc None
Gentoo Binary blobs none openrc Awesome, Enlightenment, Fluxbox, GNOME, KDE, LXDE-Meta, Openbox, XBMC and Xfce (live DVD)[86]
gNewSense Debian Linux kernel, and (unlike Debian) blobs cannot be installed[81] ext3 sysvinit GNOME
gnuLinEx Binary blobs ext2 ? GNOME
Guix Linux-libre btrfs, ext4 GNU Shepherd GNOME, Xfce, Mate, Enlightenment, i3, ratpoison, xmonad In progress[87]
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre Linux-libre none openrc[88] none
Instant WebKiosk Binary blobs SquashFS systemd Has no DE. It's a browser-only interface
Kali Linux Binary blobs ext3 systemd GNOME
Knoppix Binary blobs xfs microknoppix LXDE
LibreCMC[89] Binary blobs ext4 busybox-init none
Linux Mint[90] Binary blobs[79] ext4 systemd MATE, Cinnamon, KDE 4, XFCE
Mageia Binary blobs ext4 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME
Mandriva Linux Binary blobs ext4 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces
Manjaro Linux Binary blobs none[91] systemd Xfce, KDE, GNOME [92]
MEPIS Binary blobs ext3, ext4 sysvinit KDE Plasma Workspaces
Musix GNU+Linux[93] Linux-libre ext4 initscripts LXDE
OpenELEC Binary blobs SquashFS shell script XBMC Media Center
openSUSE Binary blobs btrfs systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME, Xfce In progress[94]
OpenWrt Binary blobs overlayfs+SquashFS/JFFS2[95] procd[96] none
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Linux-libre none openrc or systemd none
Pardus Binary blobs ext4 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces
Parsix Binary blobs ext4 systemd GNOME
PCLinuxOS Binary blobs none sysvinit KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME, LXDE, Xfce, Enlightenment, Openbox
Pentoo Binary blobs SquashFS openrc Enlightenment
Porteus Binary blobs Squashfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, FAT32, reiser, xfs sysvinit KDE, LXDE, Xfce, Openbox, Razor-qt
Puppy Linux Binary blobs SquashFS containing ext2 busybox-init JWM
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Binary blobs xfs systemd GNOME
Rxart Desktop Binary blobs ext3 ? KDE Plasma Workspaces
Sabayon Linux Binary blobs ext4[97] systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME
Scientific Linux Binary blobs ext4 sysvinit, systemd[98] GNOME
Slackware Binary blobs[79] ext4 sysvinit compatible BSD init scripts KDE Plasma Workspaces, Xfce, Fluxbox, Blackbox, twm
Slax Binary blobs SquashFS sysvinit KDE Plasma Workspaces
SliTaz GNU/Linux Binary blobs ext3 busybox-init Openbox
Solus Binary blobs ext4 systemd Budgie, Gnome, MATE
Source Mage GNU/Linux Binary blobs ext2 simpleinit-msb none
SteamOS Binary blobs ? systemd Steam
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop Binary blobs[79] btrfs[99] systemd GNOME
Tails Vanilla Linux[79] ? systemd GNOME
Tor-ramdisk Binary blobs ext2 ? none
Trisquel Linux-libre ext4, xfs systemd GNOME, LXDE
TurnKey GNU/Linux Binary blobs ext4 systemd none - headless server by design; provides Webmin for administration
Ubuntu/Edubuntu Binary blobs[79] ext4[100] systemd Unity
Ubuntu GNOME Binary blobs ext4 systemd GNOME 3
Ubuntu MATE Binary blobs ext4 systemd MATE
Kubuntu Binary blobs ext4[100] systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces
Xubuntu Binary blobs ext4[100] systemd Xfce
Lubuntu Binary blobs ext4 systemd LXQt
Ututo Ututo XS (stable) is de-blobed with Linux-libre tools.[101] Ututo UL (development) uses Linux-libre. Ututo UL means "Ubuntu-Libre" ext3 systemd GNOME
VectorLinux Binary blobs ReiserFS sysvinit KDE, Openbox, Fluxbox, IceWM, Xfce
Void Linux Binary blobs none runit none
Webconverger Binary blobs gitfs sysvinit dwm enforcing a Browser-only interface
XBMC Live Binary blobs ext3 systemd XBMC Media Center
Zentyal Binary blobs ext4 systemd LXDE
Zenwalk Binary blobs ext4 sysvinit Xfce
发行版 默认 Linux 内核 默认文件系统 默认 init 守护进程 安装时可选的桌面环境或窗口管理器 Reproducible builds

价格[编辑]

以下发行版完全免费:aLinuxALT LinuxAnnvixArch LinuxArk Linux,Arudius,Asianux,Aurox, BLAG Linux and GNU, CentOS, CRUX, Damn Small Linux, Debian, DeLi Linux, DeMuDi, Devil-Linux, dyne:bolic, Easy Peasy, Edubuntu, EnGarde Secure Linux, Fedora, Finnix, Foresight Linux, Freespire, Frugalware, Gentoo, gNewSense, Gnoppix, gnuLinEx, GoboLinux, Gobuntu, Impi Linux, Kanotix, Knoppix, Knoppmyth, Kubuntu, Kurumin Linux, Linux Mint, Lunar Linux, Musix GNU+Linux, NimbleX, NUbuntu, openSUSE, Paipix, Pardus, Parsix, PCLinuxOS, Puppy Linux, QiLinux, SabayonLinux, Satux, Scientific Linux, sidux, Slackware, SLAX, SliTaz GNU/Linux, Source Mage GNU/Linux, Symphony OS, SYS, Trustix, Ubuntu, Ututo GNU/Linux, Xubuntu, XBMC Live, YoperZenwalk.

以下发行版有不同版本,其中一些免费而另外的则需要付费:Caixa Mágica, Mandriva Linux, MEPISRed Flag Linux.

以下发行版需要付费:Elive, Linspire,[102]Novell Open Enterprise Server,[103]Pie Box Enterprise Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux,[104][105]Rxart,[106]SUSE Linux Enterprise.[107]

请注意這裡谈论的是"自由软件"(free software),"free"这个词通常指软件的自由使用,而非免费:对于这个不同的解释,参见自由软件定义

架构支持[编辑]

发行版 x86 x86-64 ia64 ppc[108] ppc64 sparc32 sparc64 arm hppa[109] LoongISA mips[110] sh s390 s390x alpha[111] sw64 m68k[112] riscv
Alpine Linux
Arch Linux Unofficial[113]
Official discontinued 2017-11-08
[114]
Discontinued unofficial port Unofficial[115] 龙梦版本
已停止维护[116]
BackTrack Discontinued from BackTrack 5 and superseded by Kali Linux[117] Discontinued from BackTrack 5 and superseded by Kali Linux Discontinued from BackTrack 5 and superseded by Kali Linux
BLAG
Bodhi Linux Discontinued
2013-10-23
[118]
BOSS Linux ?
CentOS AltArch Discontinued
3.5-3.8
4.1-4.7
[119]
Beta, Discontinued
4.0
AltArch Beta
4.2
[119][120]
AltArch 现有龙芯中科6.4版本
龙芯中科正在预研8.0版本
Discontinued
3.5-3.8
4.1-4.7
[119][121]
Discontinued
3.5-3.8
4.1-4.7
[119][121]
Discontinued
4.2-4.3
[119][122][123]
Chakra ?
CRUX
Debian[124] Yes
4.0+
Discontinued
3.0-7.0
[125]
Discontinued
2.2-8
Discontinued
2.1-4.0
[126]
Discontinued
-7
[127]
Yes
2.2+
Discontinued
3.0-5.0
In progress Discontinued
3.0-7
Yes
7+
Discontinued
2.1-5.0
Discontinued
2.0-3.1
In progress[128]
深度操作系统(Deepin)
Devuan
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre
dyne:bolic
Fedora[129] Discontinued from
Fedora 9
[130]
Discontinued from
Fedora 17
Inactive from
Fedora 12
[131]
[132] 有非官方版本,一直在进行维护 从23版本开始停止维护 In progress[133]
Finnix
Gentoo[134] [135] [136] [137][138] Test release[139]
gNewSense
Guix[140]
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre In progress[141] In progress[142]
Kali Linux
LibreCMC 是,(君正)
Loongnix
Manjaro Linux
Unofficial[143]

Unofficial[144]
MEPIS
Musix GNU+Linux
OpenELEC
openSUSE[145] Discontinued
42.1
[146] [146] partial[147] partial[148]
OpenWrt[149]
Oracle Linux[150] Discontinued
5
[151]
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Test release[152] Yes, ARMv7[153][154] 已停止维护[155] 已停止维护[155] Test release[156]
Red Flag Linux Discontinued
8.0
[157]
Discontinued
8.0
[157]
Discontinued
3
[158]
Discontinued
3
[158]
支持龙芯2F,之后失去支持 支持龙芯2F,之后失去支持
Red Hat Linux[159] Discontinued
9.0
Discontinued
7.1-7.2
Test release
5.1
[160]
Discontinued
4.0-4.2
5.1-6.2
Test release
5.1
[160]
Test release
5.1
[160]
Discontinued
7.2
Discontinued
2.1-7.1
Test release
5.1
[160]
Red Hat Enterprise Linux[161] Discontinued
2.1-6
[162]

3+
Discontinued
2.1-5
[163]

3+

3+
Discontinued
3-4
[164]

3+
Sabayon Linux Discontinued
Scientific Linux Discontinued
3-4
SHR
Slackware Discontinued
?
[165]
Discontinued
?
[166]
Discontinued
?
[166]
Discontinued
8.1
[167]
Solus
Source Mage GNU/Linux
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server[168] AArch64 only[169]
Tor-ramdisk [170] [171]
Trisquel GNU/Linux
TurnKey GNU/Linux Selected ISOs
available
在社区发展中
Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu/Lubuntu 是, including 64-bit ARMv8-A 现有龙芯中科1604版本 Ubuntu only, 16.04+[172]
统一操作系统(UOS)
Ututo 正在预研中
Void Linux
XBMCbuntu
Yellow Dog Linux
发行版 x86 x86-64 ia64 ppc ppc64 sparc32 sparc64 arm hppa LoongISA mips sh s390 s390x alpha sw64 m68k riscv

软件包管理和安装[编辑]

发行版的特性信息。软件包数量仅仅是参考。

Distribution Free software repositories Approximate number of pre-compiled packages Approximate number of source packages Default package management tool(s) Package format Default installer Graphical installation process Netinstall Netboot
Alpine Linux Free, and nonfree 8,135[173] ? apk .apk setup-alpine ? ?
ALT Linux Free, and nonfree 8,300[174] ? APT (APT-RPM), RPM RPM ? ?
Arch Linux Free, and nonfree 10,700[175] 71,197 from AUR[176] Pacman .pkg.tar.xz None (third-party install scripts only) iPXE
BLAG Free only 10,000[177] ? RPM, yum, APT RPM
Bodhi Linux Free, and nonfree 35,000 ? APT .dpkg Ubiquity ? ?
CentOS Free, and nonfree 17,565[178] ? RPM, yum/up2date RPM Anaconda ?
Chakra Free, and nonfree 3,074[179] CCR: 4,663[180] Pacman (will be replaced by Akabei in future) .pkg.tar.xz Package manager in development ? ?
ClearOS Free, and nonfree ? ? RPM, yum RPM ? ?
CrunchBang Linux Free, and nonfree 23,000 ? APT .deb ? ?
Damn Small Linux Free, and nonfree 610 ? myDSL, APT .dsl, .tar.gz, .uci, .unc, .deb ? ?
Debian Free, and nonfree 89,103[181] 21,041[a] APT .deb Debian-Installer PXE
Devuan Free, and nonfree ? ? APT .deb Debian-Installer PXE
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre Free only 484 ? pkgsystem .tlz ?
dyne:bolic Free only ? ? APT .deb Debian-Installer
Fedora Free, and nonfree 20,000 [182] 25,041[183] DNF, yum, PackageKit RPM Anaconda ?
Gentoo Free, and nonfree 108[184] 19,092[185][b] Portage .ebuild, .tbz2 None (third-party install scripts only) [c] PXE
gNewSense Free only ? ? APT .deb Debian-Installer
gnuLinEx Free, and nonfree 200 ? APT .deb ? ?
Guix Free only 9,714[186] 9,714 Guix .scm, .go guix system init [187]
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre Free only 14,494[188] ? Pacman .pkg.tar.xz None (third-party install scripts only) ?
Knoppix Free, and nonfree 3,600 ? APT .deb ? ?
LibreCMC Free only 826 ? ? ?
Linux Mint Free, and nonfree 50,781 ? APT .deb Ubiquity ? ?
Mageia Free, and nonfree 17,283 (i586), 11,409 (x86-64)[189] 8,834[190] urpmi, rpmdrake RPM DrakX ?
Mandriva Linux Free, and nonfree 22,600 ? urpmi, rpmdrake RPM DrakX ? ?
Manjaro Linux Free, and nonfree ? ? from AUR[176] Pacman .pkg.tar.xz Calamares[191] [192] iPXE
MEPIS Free, and nonfree 20,000 ? APT .deb MEPIS Install ? ?
Musix GNU+Linux Free only 1,819 ? APT .deb Debian-Installer
OpenELEC Free, and nonfree 140[193] ? XBMCbuntu addon manager, own and 3rd party addons .zip ? ?
openSUSE Free, and nonfree 34,000 34,000 YaST, Zypper RPM YaST ?
OpenWrt Free, and nonfree 2,000 ? opkg .ipk - ? ?
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Free only 23,000[194] ? Pacman .pkg.tar.xz None (third-party install scripts only) or Calamares ?
Pardus Free, and nonfree 4,000 ? PiSi .pisi YALI ? ?
Parsix Free, and nonfree 29,000 14,900 APT .deb ? ?
PCLinuxOS Free, and nonfree 12,000 ? APT, RPM RPM ? ?
Puppy Free, and nonfree 700 ? PupGet, DotPup .pup, .pet ? ?
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Free, and nonfree 3,000 (plus 9,155 from EPEL[195]) ? RPM, yum RPM Anaconda ? ?
Rxart Free, and nonfree 5,000 ? APT .deb ? ?
Sabayon Linux Free, and nonfree >13,130 ? Portage, Entropy ebuild, .tbz2 Calamares ? ?
Scientific Free, and nonfree ? ? APT/yum RPM ? ?
Slackware Free, and nonfree 2,292 7,705 from SlackBulids[196] slackpkg tgz, .txz, .tlz, .tbz bash script[197]
Slax Free, and nonfree 2,050 ? none .lzm ? ?
SliTaz GNU/Linux Free, and nonfree 3,381[198] ? Tazpkg .tazpkg tazinst iPXE iPXE
Solus Free, and nonfree 9,500 ? eopkg .eopkg os-installer
Source Mage GNU/Linux Free, and nonfree 118 8,876 Sorcery Package Manager src ? ?
SUSE Linux Free, and nonfree 24,094 11,385 YaST, Zypper RPM YaST ? ?
Tiny Core Linux Free, and nonfree 25,160 ? ab, tce-load tcz tc-install, core2usb ? ?
Tiny SliTaz Free, and nonfree 50 ? Web site[199] tazpkg ? iPXE
Tor-ramdisk Free, and nonfree ? ? none none ? ?
Trisquel Free only 52,748[200] ? APT .deb Ubiquity ?
TurnKey GNU/Linux Free, and nonfree 57,290[181] plus ≈30 custom packages 21,041[d] (currently TurnKey only supplies source code for custom packages) APT .deb DI-Live (custom fork of Debian Installer)
Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu Free, and nonfree 88,367[201] 24,474[e] APT .deb Ubiquity PXE
Ututo Free only 5,000 ? UTUTO Package Manager ebuild ? ?
Vector Linux Free, and nonfree ? ? slapt-get, gslapt, installpkg tgz ? ?
Void Linux Free, nonfree and multilib 6,000 6,719 xbps .xbps ncurses script
XBMC Live Free, and nonfree ? ? APT .deb ? ?
Zentyal Free, and nonfree ? ? APT .deb dpkg ? ?
Zenwalk Free, and nonfree 2,000 ? netpkg, installpkg, upgradepkg tgz, txz ? ?
Distribution Free software repositories Approximate number of pre-compiled packages Approximate number of source packages Default package management tools Package format Default installer Graphical installation process Netinstall Netboot


Live CDs/DVDs/USBs[编辑]

Distribution Size of media (MB) RAM use (MB) Boots from CD Boots from DVD Installable live CD/DVD Installable from USB
Arch Linux 742
AUSTRUMI 301
BLAG Linux and GNU 696 ? ?
Bodhi Linux 1,024 80
CentOS 603 (Minimal) 4,096 (DVD) Yes (installable since 6.0)
Chakra 2,150
Debian 958
Devuan 868
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre 655 ? ? ? ?
dyne:bolic 1,650 ? up to version 2.x ? ?
Fedora 1,434 256 to 1,024
Gentoo 260 (Minimal) 2,048 (Live DVD) up to 128
gNewSense[202] 1,200 512 ? ? ?
Grml 460 32 to 128
Guix[203] 1,375 366
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre 660 and 688 ?
Knoppix CD 700 128 to 320 Only DVD edition is maintained
Knoppix DVD 4,813 128 to 500
LibreCMC ? ?
Mandriva Linux One 700 128 to 768
Manjaro Linux 473 to 2,200[204] 256 to 1,024
MEPIS 700 to 4,000 128 to 512
Musix GNU+Linux 2,000 ?
Nanolinux 18 ≈64
openGEU 700 192 to 512
openSUSE (Not 42.1) 700 128 to 768
OpenWrt min 4 min 16
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre 400 to 3,300 ?
Pardus 1,256 to 1,276 256 to 1,024
PCLinuxOS 130 to 700 96 to 512
Pentoo 666 and 700 48 to 96 By hand[205] By hand
Porteus 224 to 373 Error: min 36 This is not a valid number. Please refer to the documentation at {{number table sorting}} for correct input. ? ?
Puppy Linux (Slacko) 235 32 to 192
Puredyne 542
Sabayon Linux Live CD 695
Sabayon Linux Live DVD 2,400
Scientific Linux 431 to 2,300[206] 640
Slackware 2,600 64 to 1,024[207]
Slax 200 96 to 320
Solus 1,200 1,024
SystemRescueCD 459
SliTaz GNU/Linux 35 24 to 192
Tails ≈900 ≈1,024 是 (when run from DVD)
Tiny Core Linux 16 46
Tiny SliTaz 64 4 By SliTaz By SliTaz
Tor-ramdisk 5 256 or >[208]
Trisquel 1,500[209] 384
TurnKey GNU/Linux Core (base) appliance ISO 212 ~173
Ubuntu 1,700[210] 384
Ututo 3,500 ? ?
Edubuntu 2,900[211]
Kubuntu 1,400[212] 384
XBMC Live 700 256 to 1,024
Zentyal 600 256
Xubuntu 1,200[213] 256
Distribution Size of media (MB) RAM use (MB) Boots from CD Boots from DVD Installable live CD/DVD Installable from USB

安全特性[编辑]

Distribution Compile time buffer checks Mandatory access control Software executable space protection grsecurity RSBAC
Alpine Linux [214] 未知 PaX Discontinued in 3.8.0 未知
BLAG 未知 未知 未知 未知 未知
Debian/Ubuntu SELinux, AppArmor PaX optional 可选 可选
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre 未知 未知 未知 未知 未知
dyne:bolic 未知 未知 未知 未知 未知
Fedora SELinux[215] Exec Shield[216]
Gentoo 可选 SELinux, AppArmor PaX optional 可选 可选
gNewSense 未知 SELinux, AppArmor[f] 未知 未知 未知
Guix System Distribution 未知 未知 未知 未知 未知
LibreCMC 未知 未知 未知 未知 未知
Mandriva 未知 AppArmor 未知 未知
Musix GNU+Linux 未知 未知 未知 未知 未知
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre 未知 Optional[217] 未知 Optional[217] 未知
Slackware 未知 AppArmor, tomoyo 未知 未知 可选
SUSE Linux AppArmor[218] Hardware NX and other methods in mainline kernel and toolchain[219]
Solus AppArmor 未知 未知
Tor-ramdisk 未知 未知 PaX
Trisquel 未知 SELinux, AppArmor[g] 未知 未知 未知
Ututo 未知 未知 未知 未知 未知

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ From the Sources.gz files in the main, contrib and non-free sections of Debian Jessie. On the 2015-11-21, Debian Sid, the development release, have 24757 source packages.
  2. ^ Note this number is just of packages in the Official Gentoo Overlay (or Portage Tree). Several hundred other packages are available from other overlays
  3. ^ Can be installed graphically (GTK+ and ncurses), but traditionally done by command line (install cd, live cd, netboot, and from distributions).
  4. ^ From the Sources.gz files in the main, contrib and non-free sections of Debian Jessie. On the 2015-11-21, Debian Sid, the development release, have 24757 source packages.
  5. ^ From the Sources.gz files in the main,universe, multiverse and restricted sections of Ubuntu Wily.
  6. ^ Based on Debian
  7. ^ Based on Ubuntu

参见[编辑]

参考[编辑]

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外部連結[编辑]