一致欢呼

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一致欢呼Acclamation)是一种早先的天主教教宗选举方式。

教宗选举的方式被包含在历任教宗的宗徒宪章:教宗额我略十五世Æterni Patris Filius and Decet Romanum Pontificem, 教宗乌尔巴诺八世Ad Romani Pontificis Providentiam, 以及教宗若望·保禄二世Universi Dominici Gregis(1996)中。在《主的普世羊群》Universi Dominici Gregis中,三种教宗选举的方式被认定为有效::秘密投票(by scrutiny),妥协(by compromise), 一致欢呼(by acclamation)。一致欢呼的方式要求全体在场的选举人一致同意一位候选人成为教宗,而不需要正式的投票过程。正因这种方式不需要事先磋商和会议,被看作是圣神推动了这一过程,也被称作“quasi-inspiration”。[1]

现今,教宗选举都是通过秘密投票进行,选举人员投下秘密选票。最后一次通过妥协进行的选举被认为是选举教宗若望二十二世(1316年),而最后一次通过一致欢呼方式当选的是教宗诺森十一世(1676年)。新的规定由教宗若望·保禄二世采用,以正式废弃这些长期不用的体制而总是采用秘密投票方式进行选举[1]。2007年,教宗本笃十六世撤销了若望·保禄二世的修改(该修改被认为有效废除了三分之二多数的要求,因为任何多数将能够阻挠选举直到一个简单多数足够选举另一位教宗),重新确定了三分之二多数的要求[2]

由一致欢呼选举出的教宗[编辑]

选举年份 教宗 注释
236 法比盎 "...and so, divinely inspired, as it were, they chose Fabian with joyous unanimity and placed him in the Chair of Peter."[3]

“...由此,在圣神的启迪下,他们在欢乐中全体一致地选择了法比盎,并使他坐上了圣伯多禄的圣座。”

590 额我略一世 [4]
731 额我略三世 "the Romans elected him pope by acclamation, when he was accompanying the funeral procession of his predecessor"[5]

“正当他在前任教宗葬礼的队列里默默行进时,罗马人通过一直欢呼的方式选他作了教宗。”

1073 额我略七世 On the death of Alexander II (April 21, 1073), as the obsequies were being performed in the Lateran basilica, there arose a loud outcry from the whole multitude of clergy and people: "Let Hildebrand be pope!", "Blessed Peter has chosen Hildebrand the Archdeacon!" Later, on the same day, Hildebrand was conducted to the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, and there elected in legal form by the assembled cardinals, with the due consent of the Roman clergy and amid the repeated acclamations of the people.
圣拉特朗大殿中,在亚历山大二世的葬礼上(1073年4月21日),人群与圣职者们一同爆发出一阵响亮的呐喊声:“让Hildebrand作教宗!”,“圣伯多禄已选择了首席执事Hildebrand!”随后,在同一天内,Hildebrand被护送到圣伯多禄锁链堂,在那里枢机们依照教会法,并依照人们的意愿,选举他成为教宗。
1621 额我略十五世
1670 克雷芒十世 The election is said to have been determined by the sudden cry of the people outside the conclave, "Altieri Papa", which was confirmed by the cardinals.
据说这次选举由教宗选举小堂外的人群决定,人群们突然高呼,“Altieri Papa”(Altieri是克雷芒十世的本名),随后枢机团接受了这一决定。
1676 诺森十一世 The cardinals surrounded him in the chapel of the conclave and in spite of his resistance every one of them kissed his hand, proclaiming him Pope.

在教宗选举的小堂里,枢机们围住了他,并依次亲吻他的手,尽管他有所推辞,他还是被正式宣布任命教宗。

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Universi Dominici Gregis on the vacancy of the apostolic see and the election of the roman pontiff
  2. ^ Pope changes rules for electing successor NEWS.com.au
  3. ^ Meier, Gabriel. "Pope St. Fabian." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 19 Jan. 2010 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05742d.htm>.
  4. ^ Laska, Vera. (2005). Review of The Great Popes through History: An Encyclopedia, 2 Vols. International Journal on World Peace.
  5. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Pope St. Gregory III" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.

参见[编辑]