核事故

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依照国际原子能机构IAEA)的标准,核事故是指对人、环境或设备造成严重后果的事件。核事故导致的后果有致死的影响、对自然环境造成的大量辐射泄漏爐心熔毀等。[1]“重大核事故”,比如1986年的切尔诺贝利核事故,则通常指堆芯英语reactor core损坏,大量放射性材料泄漏的事故。[2]

核子動力潛艇事故包括K-19(1961),K-19(1961),K-11(1965),K-27(1968),K-140(1968),K-429(1970),K-222(1980)和 K-431(1985)[3][4]。严重的辐射事件/事故包括克什特姆核廢料爆炸事故溫斯喬火災,哥斯达黎加的放射性事故[5],萨拉戈萨的放射性事故[6],摩洛哥的辐射事故[7]戈亚尼亚事故英语Goiania accident,[8],墨西哥城的辐射事故, 泰国的放射治疗单位事故[9],以及印度的Mayapuri放射性事故[9]

国际原子能机构设有一个网站报道最近的事故[10]

参阅[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Staff, IAEA, AEN/NEA. International Nuclear and Radiological Events Scale Users' Manual, 2008 Edition (PDF). Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. : 184 [2010-07-26]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2011-05-15). 
  2. ^ Yablokov, Alexey V.; Nesterenko, Vassily B.; Nesterenko, Alexey; Sherman-Nevinger, consulting editor, Jannette D. Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment. Boston, MA: Blackwell Publishing for the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009 [2016-06-11]. ISBN 978-1-57331-757-3. 
  3. ^ The Worst Nuclear Disasters. TIME.com. 25 March 2009. 
  4. ^ Johnston, Robert. Deadliest radiation accidents and other events causing radiation casualties. Database of Radiological Incidents and Related Events. September 23, 2007. 
  5. ^ Gusev, Igor; Guskova, Angelina; Mettler, Fred A. Medical Management of Radiation Accidents, Second Edition. CRC Press. 2001-03-28. ISBN 9781420037197 (英语). 
  6. ^ Strengthening the Safety of Radiation Sources p. 15.
  7. ^ NRC: Information Notice No. 85-57: Lost Iridium-192 Source Resulting in the Death of Eight Persons in Morocco. 
  8. ^ The Radiological Accident in Goiania p. 2.
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Pallava Bagla. "Radiation Accident a 'Wake-Up Call' For India's Scientific Community" Science, Vol. 328, 7 May 2010, p. 679.
  10. ^ IAEA Scientific and Technical Publications of Special Interest. www-pub.iaea.org. [2016-04-07].