中前不圆唇元音

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中前不圆唇元音
e
ɛ̝
国际音标编号 302 430
编码
HTML码 十进制 e​̞
Unicode 十六进制 U+0065 U+031E
X-SAMPA音标 e_o
声音

中前不圆唇元音 是在一些语言发音中出现的一种元音。 虽然IPA没有专门表示介于半闭的/e/和半开的/ɛ/间正中位置元音的符号,此音通常写作 e。而若欲准确表示,则可使附加符,如 ɛ̝(前者更多见)。一些汉学家韩学家则使用 (小字大写E, U+1D07, )。

许多音系中“中元音区”(即非亦非)只有一个不圆唇元音的语言,通常将之发作真正的中元音(与半闭半开元音均有差异),包括西班牙语日语韩语希腊语土耳其语等。英语的许多方言亦有此音。然而,这点却并非能通用。例如,尽管都没有其他前不圆唇元音,但伊博语的是/e/,而保加利亚语中则是/ɛ/

据称,分布于马来西亚和泰国的Kensiu语可以独一无二地区分仅在半闭、中和半开上有所差异的三个前不圆唇元音。[來源請求]

特征[编辑]

见诸语言[编辑]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Hejazi[1] ليش [le̞ːʃ] 'why' Typically transcribed /eː/.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic h [he̞ː] 'yes' Usually shifted to [e] and [ɪ] in the Urmia and Jilu dialects.
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] [示例请求]
Catalan Modern Alguerese[3] sec [se̞k] 'dry' /ɛ/ and /e/ merge into [e̞] in these dialects. See Catalan phonology
Northern[3]
Czech Bohemian[4] led [lë̞t] 'ice' Near-front; may be open-mid [ɛ] instead.[4] See Czech phonology
Danish[5] Conservative[6] hæl [ˈhe̞ːˀl] 'heel' Described variously as close-mid [e][7][8][9][10][11] and open-mid [ɛ][12] in contemporary Standard Danish. Most often, it is transcribed [ɛ(ː)]. See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[13] wel [β̞e̞l] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Cardiff[14] square [skwe̞ː] 'square' Corresponds to /ɛə/ in RP.
Received Pronunciation[15] let [le̞t] 'let' Corresponds to [ɛ] in other dialects. See English phonology
Inland Northern American[16] bit [bë̞t̚] 'bit' Near-front,[16][17] may be [ɪ] (also [ə] in Scotland) instead for other speakers. See Northern Cities vowel shift
Scottish[17] [bë̞ʔ]
Yorkshire[18] play [ple̞ː] 'play'
Estonian[19] keha [ˈke̞ɦɑ̝ˑ] 'body' See Estonian phonology
Finnish[20][21] menen [ˈme̞ne̞n] 'I go' See Finnish phonology
German Bernese dialect[22] rède [ˈre̞d̥ə] 'to speak' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ. See Bernese German phonology
Standard[23] Bett [bɛ̝̈t] 'bed' Near-front;[23] also described as open-mid front [ɛ].[24] See Standard German phonology
Greek φαινόμενο /
fainómeno
[fe̞ˈno̞me̞no̞] 'phenomenon' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[25] כן [ke̞n] 'yes' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[26] hét [he̞ːt̪] 'seven' See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[27] [sé̞] 'look'
Italian Piedmont bene [ˈbe̞ːne̞] 'good' Corresponds to /ɛ/ and /e/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Japanese[28] 笑み [e̞mʲi] 'smile' See Japanese phonology
Jebero[29] [ˈiʃë̞k] 'bat' Near-front; possible realization of /ɘ/.[29]
Korean[30] 베개 [pe̞ˈɡɛ] 'pillow' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[31] bed [be̞t] 'bed' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ.
Weert dialect[32] zegke [ˈze̞ɡə] 'to say'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[33] nett [n̻e̞t̻ː] 'net' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian energia [ẽ̞ne̞ɦˈʑi.ɐ] 'energy' Unstressed vowel.[34] See Portuguese phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[35] birk [be̞ʁk] [translation needed] Allophone of /e/ before /m, n, ŋ, l, ʁ/.[35]
Romanian fete [ˈfe̞t̪e̞] 'girls' See Romanian phonology
Russian[36] человек [t͡ɕɪlɐˈvʲe̞k] 'human' Occurs only after soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[37] питање /
pitanje
[pǐːt̪äːɲ̟e̞] 'question' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak Standard[38][39][40] behať [ˈbe̞ɦäc̟] 'to run' Backness varies between front and near-front.[40] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[41] velikan [ʋe̞liˈká̠ːn] 'giant' Unstressed vowel,[41] as well as an allophone of /e/ before /j/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[42] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[43] bebé [be̞ˈβ̞e̞] 'baby' See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[44] häll [he̞l̪] 'flat rock' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ. Many dialects pronounce short /e/ and /ɛ/ the same. See Swedish phonology
Tagalog daliri [dɐˈliɾe̞] 'finger' See Tagalog phonology
Tera[45] ze [zè̞ː] 'spoke'
Turkish[46][47] ev [e̞v] 'house' See Turkish phonology
Upper Sorbian[48] njebjo [ˈɲ̟e̞bʲɔ] 'sky' Allophone of /ɛ/ between soft consonants and after a soft consonant, excluding /j/ in both cases.[48] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Võro [示例请求]
West Frisian[49] ik [e̞k] 'I' Also described as close-mid [e];[50] typically transcribed in IPA as ɪ. See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[51] [示例请求] Typically transcribed in IPA as ɛ̃. It is nasalized, and may be open-mid [ɛ̃] instead.[51]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Jarrah, Mohamed Ali Saleh (1993)
  2. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Recasens (1996:59-60)
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Dankovičová (1999:72)
  5. ^ Uldall (1933), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:289)
  6. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  7. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  8. ^ Grønnum (2005:268)
  9. ^ Grønnum (2003)
  10. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  11. ^ John Wells's phonetic blog: Danish. 5 November 2010 [11 March 2015]. 
  12. ^ Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  13. ^ Peters (2010:241)
  14. ^ Coupland (1990:95)
  15. ^ Roach (2004:242)
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles. A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English. Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. 15 July 1997 [March 7, 2013]. 
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  18. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:179)
  19. ^ Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  20. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:60, 66)
  21. ^ Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  22. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 Kohler (1999:87)
  24. ^ Mangold (2005:37)
  25. ^ Laufer (1999:98)
  26. ^ Szende (1994:92)
  27. ^ Urua (2004:106)
  28. ^ Okada (1991:94)
  29. ^ 29.0 29.1 Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013:101)
  30. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  31. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  32. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  33. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  34. ^ Corresponds to /ɛ/, or /ɨ/ and /i/ (where Brazilian dialects have [i ~ ɪ ~ e̞]), in other national variants. May be lowered to [ɛ̝ ~ ɛ] in amazofonia, nordestino, mineiro (MG) and fluminense (RJ) if not nasalized ([ẽ̞] does not corresponds to phoneme //), or be raised and merged to /e/ in sulista, paulistano, caipira and sertanejo.
  35. ^ 35.0 35.1 Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:16)
  36. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:41)
  37. ^ Landau et al. (1999:67)
  38. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:375)
  39. ^ Kráľ (1988:92)
  40. ^ 40.0 40.1 Pavlík (2004:93, 95)
  41. ^ 41.0 41.1 Tatjana Srebot-Rejec. On the vowel system in present-day Slovene (PDF). 
  42. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:138)
  43. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:256)
  44. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  45. ^ Tench (2007:230)
  46. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
  47. ^ Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)
  48. ^ 48.0 48.1 Šewc-Schuster (1984:34)
  49. ^ Sipma (1913:10)
  50. ^ Tiersma (1999:10)
  51. ^ 51.0 51.1 Bamgboṣe (1969:166)

参考书目[编辑]

  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin, Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers, 2006 
  • Coupland, Nikolas, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change: 95, 1990, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Engstrand, Olle, Swedish, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 140–142, 1999, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe, Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2005, 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis, The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press, 1969 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo, Croatian, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 66–69, 1999, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Laufer, Asher, Hebrew, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: 96–99, 1999 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok, Korean, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press: 120–122, 1999, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina, Castilian Spanish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2003, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Okada, Hideo, Japanese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1991, 21 (2): 94–96, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn, A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing, 1999 
  • Szende, Tamás, Hungarian, Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet, 1994, 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090 
  • Vanvik, Arne, Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, 1979, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo, Belgian Standard Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2005, 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan, Turkish, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 154–158, 1999, ISBN 0-521-65236-7