动脉粥样硬化

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动脉粥样硬化
Atherosclerosis
同義詞 Arteriosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD)
Endo dysfunction Athero.PNG
动脉粥样硬化的病程 (血管狹窄化的放大圖)
醫學專科 心臟病學血管學
症状 [1]
併發症 冠狀動脈疾病中風周邊動脈阻塞腎功能衰竭[1]
常見始發於 青年 (並且隨著年紀增加而惡化)[2]
肇因 未知[1]
風險因子英语Risk factor 高血壓糖尿病吸煙肥胖症、家族史、不健康的飲食[3]
預防 健康飲食、規律運動、不抽菸、維持正常體重[4]
藥物 Statin抗高血压药阿司匹林[5]
盛行率 ~100% (高於65歲)[6]
动脉粥样硬化
分类和外部资源
醫學專科 心臟內科
ICD-10 I70
ICD-9-CM 440, 414.0
DiseasesDB 1039
MedlinePlus 000171
eMedicine med/182
Patient UK 动脉粥样硬化
MeSH D050197
Confusion grey.svg
提示:本条目的主题不是血管硬化

动脉粥样硬化英语:Atherosclerosis)是由于脂肪血栓结缔组织碳酸钙血管(主要是动脉)沉积所造成的一种对人体有害的状态。[7]

病理[编辑]

在过去很长时间裡动脉硬化始终是医学生物化学研究的重点。其原因是因为它的普及性。许多人有动脉硬化,但是这个状态可以数年、数十年在人体内存在,却不显示出任何病态,然后它会突然以局部缺血、心绞痛心肌梗塞中风心力衰竭等致命病爆发。在发展国家中动脉硬化后果是最常见的死因。[8]

动脉硬化的特征是动脉的慢性退化及动脉壁的逐渐变化。由于结缔组织的增长、细胞内外胆固醇脂肪酸以及碳酸钙的沉积、膠原蛋白蛋白聚糖的聚集动脉壁变硬变厚,动脉变细,整个动脉失去弹性。[9]

当胆固醇等物质堆积到了足够程度时,血管内皮细胞会诱导单核细胞分化为巨噬细胞。巨噬细胞会吞噬血管壁之间的脂肪并使它们堆积于细胞内,脂肪使细胞成为泡沫细胞[10]

主动脉外,常累及心脏的冠状动脉和脑、肾动脉,可以引起动脉粥样斑块破裂、血栓形成,管腔狭窄至闭塞,从而使有关器官的血液供应发生障碍。

由于动脉硬化过程非常复杂,参加的细胞和组织(上皮细胞平滑肌单核细胞巨噬细胞血小板)、分子(脂蛋白生长激素、胆固醇、脂肪、膠原蛋白和细胞因子等)多样,其中关系错综,因此至今为止在医学上没有良好的可以预言动脉硬化的模型和技术。

视频字幕

致病風險因素[编辑]

通过众多病史学和临床研究至少可以总结出一定的、有利于动脉硬化形成的因素。

後天可變的[编辑]

後天不可變的[编辑]

機率偏低未被完全確認[编辑]

參見[编辑]

參考來源[编辑]

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